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3 - The Indian brewing tradition in the 1st millennium BC.
The ferment kinva is clearly an amylolytic ferment. It is the subject of a separate preparation, based on starchy sources (rice + mung bean), with the intervention of specific seeds, all carefully proportioned. It is a true recipe for a brewing ingredient, not an adjuvant such as leaven, beer lees or dried yeast. Other technical descriptions taken from Brahmanic texts confirm this essential topic.
The presence of the amylolytic ferment kinva connects the ancient Indian brewery to the Chinese and the overall Asian traditions. A central historical question is raised: did the Indian brewing tradition influence the Chinese brewing tradition, or vice versa, or are we dealing with two autonomous traditions?
It would seem, subject to further study, that the brewing traditions of India and China are not as unified as is believed to be the case in the first millennium BC.In China as in India, several technological paths coexist: malt-based beers, beers with amylolytic ferments and probably also beers with acid-alcoholic fermentations, not to mention insalivation and amylolytic plants.