Sub saharan Africa

 

Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Chad, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Benin, Togo, Guinea.

 

  1. Achi OK. 1990, Microbiology of 'obiolor', a Nigerian fermented non-alcoholic beverage, J. App Bacteriol 69, 321:25.
  2. Adandé A. 1953, Le maïs et ses usages dans le Bas-Dahomey, Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique noire (Dakar) XV(1), 220:282.
    • All food and beverage fermented from maize. A complete intermingling between solid and liquid forms. The coastal area of Western Africa, with the coast of Congo, is the oldest part of the world where maize was brought from America by the Portuguese and locally grown by African people since the 15th century. The african legends have made maize a native plant.
  3. Adegoke G.O., Nwaigwe R.N., Oguntimein G.B. 1995, Microbiological and biochemical changes during the production of sekete, a fermented beverage made from maize, Journal of Food Science and Technology 32(6), 516:518.
  4. Agier Michel, Lulle Thierry 1986, Eléments d'anthropologie des lieux de travail: le cas d'une brasserie au Togo, Anthropologie et Société 10(1), 104:143.
  5. Akyeampong Emmanuel 1996, Drink, Power and Cultural Change. A Social History of Alcohol in Ghana, c. 1800 to Recent Times. Social History of Africa.
  6. Akyeampong Emmanuel 2002, Drinking with Friends: Popular Culture, the Working Poor, and Youth Drinking in Independent Ghana. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, D. F. Bryceson (ed.) Portsmouth NH, 215:230.
  7. Arhin Kwame 1994, The Economic Implications of Transformations in Akan Funeral Rites, Journal of the International African Institute 64(3), 307:322.
  8. Bedaux Rogier M. A.1972, Tellem, reconnaissance archéologique d'une culture de l'Ouest africain au Moyen-Age : recherches architectoniques, Journalde la Société des Africanistes 42(2), 103:185.
    • The "Tellem" culture precedes the Dogons in Mali before the 16th century.
  9. Bedaux Rogier M. A., Lange A. G. 1983, Tellem, reconnaissance archéologique d'une culture de l'Ouest africain au Moyen-Age : la poterie, Journaldes Africanistes 53, 5:59.
    • Many types of jars and pots are related to the manufacture and consumption of beer. They belong to the so-called "Tellem culture," 11th-16th centuries (remains in the cliffs of Sanga) in Mali.
  10. Beek Walter van 2011, The Gender of Beer: Beer, Symbolism among Kapsiki/Higi and the Dogon. In Liquid Bread. Beer and Brewing in Cross-Cultural Perspective ed. by Wulf Schiefenhövel & Hellen Macbeth, 147:157.
  11. Beek Walter van 2002, Drinking with Friends: Popular Culture, the Working Poor, and Youth Drinking in Independent Ghana. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, ed. D. F. Bryceson, Portsmouth NH, 215:230.
  12. Belliard François 2001, Préparation de bière de sorgho chez les jóòhé (Burkina Faso), étude ethnolinguistique d'une technique, Journaldes Africanistes 71(2), 49:76.
  13. Beliard François 2011, Brewing Sorghum Beer in Burkina Faso: A study in Food Technology from the Perspective of Anthropological Linguistics. In Liquid Bread. Beer and Brewing in Cross-Cultural Perspective ed. by Wulf Schiefenhövel & Hellen Macbeth, 171:181.
  14. Baroin Catherine, Prêt Pierre-François 1993, Le palmier du Borkou, végétal social total, Journaldes Africanistes 63, 5:20.
    • Borku, a depression near Lake Chad : palm wine but no beer, because of a lack of cereal growing.
  15. Chauve Serge s.d. (1985?), Le DOLO. Dossier libre EITARC 2 Montpellier.
  16. Cuoq Joseph M. 1985, Recueil des sources arabes concernant l'Afrique occidentale du VIIIè au XVIè siècle (Bilad al-sudan), Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.
    • Writings of Arab geographers and travelers on Black Africa. Several witnesses to the presence of beer. Single French compilation on that subject, beside Lewick 1974 in English.
  17. Dieterlen Germaine, Calame-Griaule Geneviève 1960, L'alimentation dogon,Cahiers d’Études africaines 3, 46:89.
  18. Dupré G. 1965, Aspects techniques et sociaux de l'agriculture en pays bassari, Cahiers du Centre de recherches anthropologiques, XI° Série, tome 8 fascicule 1-2, 75:159.
    • Pages 130-138: description of the beer brewed for public works and agricultural rituals celebrated with them.
  19. Efiuvwevwere B.J.O., Akona O. 1995, The microbiology of kunun-zaki, a cereal beverage from northern Nigeria, during the fermentation (production) process, World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 11, 491:493.
  20. Ekundayo JA. 1969, The production of pito, a Nigerian fermented beverage, Journal of Food Technology 4, 217:225.
  21. Faparusi S.I. 1970, Sugar changes during the preparation of Burkutu beer, Journal of Science for Food & Agriculture 21, 79:81.
  22. Faparusi S.I., Olofinboba M.O., Ekundayo J.A., 1973, The microbiology of burukutu beer, Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Mikrobiologie 13, 563:568.
  23. Goody Jack 1982, Cooking, Cuisine and Class. A Study in Comparative Sociology. Cambridge University Press.
    • As usual, Goody offers an exciting reading. Recitation of the Black Bagré and brewing of beer. The beer offered in exchange for agricultural work in Africa could be a colonial modern phenomenon, and not a "traditional practice" or even less an ancestral custom.
  24. Goody Jack 1984, Cuisines, cuisne et classes. Trad. de Goody 1982 par J. Bouniort. Centre Georges Pompidou.
  25. Griffon Dany, Hébert Jean-Paul s. d., La bière et le DOLO en Pays Dogon, Agropolis Museum.
  26. Gessain Monique 1977, Support de ferment à bière, Journal des Africanistes 47(1), 140.
    • Drawing of a ferment support for beer made by Bassaris people, and collected at Eyolo in 1975. Object braided with vegetable fiber in the form of a small basket (approx. 10 x 20 cm) filled with gravel laterite. Steeped in the bottom of a beer jar, it absorbs and retains the rich yeast lees. Then dried in the sun, it was enough to plunge it into the next brew to start the fermentation.
  27. Gessain Monique, Lestranges Marie-Thérèse 1987, La bière de sorgho chez les Bassari. In Information sur les Sciences Sociales 26, 633:648.
    • Sorghum beer and brewing technical scheme.
  28. Gessain Monique 1996, Le sorgho chez des Tenda et des Peul au Sénégal oriental. In Cuisines, Reflets des Sociétés, Marie Claire Bataille-Benguigui & Françoise Cousin, 97:108.
    • Sorghum beer, illustrated with a technical scheme of the bassari brewing, taken from Guessain & Lestrange 1987.
  29. Hagaman B. L. 1977, Beer and matriliny : the power of women in a West Africa Society. PhD. Northeastern University Boston.
    • A classic approach to the relationships between the matrilineal organization of women in some African societies and their economic powers through the brewing and local trade of traditional beers.
  30. Hagberg Sten 2006, « Bobo buveurs, Yarse colporteurs ». Parenté à plaisanterie dans le débat public burkinabè, Cahiers d’études africaines 184, 861:881.
  31. Heap, Simon 2002, Living on the Proceeds of a Grog Shop: Liquor Revenue in Nigeria. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, D. F. Bryceson (ed.) Portsmouth NH, 139:160.
  32. Hébert Jean-Paul 2000, La bière en Afrique, Bières et Dolos. In La Bière en Afrique, du Dolo à la Pils, éd. Musée Français de la Brasserie, sp. St Nicolas-de-Port, France.
  33. Hounhouigan D. J., Nout M. J. R., Nago C. M., Houben J. H., Rombouts F.M. 1993, Changes in the Physico-Chemical Properties of Maize During Natural Fermentation of Mawè, Journal of Cereals Science 17(3), 291:300.
  34. Hounhouigan D. J., Nout M. J. R., Nago C. M., Houben J. H., Rombouts F.M. 1994, Microbiological changes in mawè during natural fermentation, World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10, 410:413.
  35. Hounhouigan Mênouwesso Harold 2007, Evaluation et Amelioration de la Technologie Traditionelle de Production de Kpètè-Kpètè: un ferment utilisé pour la fermentation du tchoukoutou, Thèse Université d'Abomey-Calavi.
  36. Jolly Eric 1995, La bière de mil dans la société Dogon. Thèse de l'université Paris X-Nanterre.
  37. Joly Eric 2000, Liens sociaux et bière de mil chez les Dogons du Mali. In La Bière en Afrique, du Dolo à la Pils, éd. Musée Français de la Brasserie, sp. St Nicolas-de-Port, France.
  38. Jolly Eric 2004, Boire avec esprit. Bière de Mil et Société Dogon. Société d'ethnologie, Nanterre.
  39. Jolly Éric 2004, « Bars et cabarets du pays dogon » Un boire individuel ou communautaire ?, Socio-anthropologie [En ligne], N°15. http://socio-anthropologie.revues.org/index399.html 
  40. Journe B. 1997, Production, vente et consommation de la bière de mil (dolo) à Ouagadougou: aspects économiques, techniques et culturels. Mémoire de Maîtrise de Géographie, Université Paris IV Sorbonne (France).
  41. Karp I. 1980, Beer Drinking and Social Experience in an African Scoiety, In Karp & Brid (eds.) Explorations of African Systems of Thought, Indiana University Press, 83:119.
  42. Kondombo Salam.R. 2005, Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso,PhD Thesis Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    • Interesting rediscovery of the reuse of brewers grains for the feeding of poultry and sheep !
  43. Kuboye, A. O. 1985. Traditional Fermented foods and Beverages of Nigeria. In Development of Indigenous Fermented Foods and Food Technology in Africa, ed. International Foundation for Science IFS), 224-237. Stockholm / Sweden.
  44. Lewicki Tadeusz, Johnson Marion 1974, West African food in the Middle Ages According to Arabic Sources, Cambridge University Press.
    • Medieval history and written sources about beer in Africa. Single compilation on that subject, beside Cuoq 1985.
  45. Lestranges Marie-Thérèse 1981, La consommation de "bière de mil" à Eyolo, village bassari du Sénégal oriental. In Objets et Mondes 21(3), 107-114.
    • Sorghum beer and brewing technical scheme.
  46. Liberski Danouta 1989, Pour une géographie de la saleté, Journal des Africanistes 59, 39:62.
    • p. 47-49 connect germination / fermentation to the general polarity "in gestation" / "decaying" conceptualized by the Dogons of Mali through their myths and rituals.
  47. Luning Sabine 2002, To Drink or Not to Drink: Beer Brewing, Rituals, and Religious Conversion in Maane, Burkina Faso. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, ed. D. F. Bryceson, 231-248. Portsmouth NH.
  48. Magrin Géraud, Mbayhoudel Koumaro 2002, La bière à l'index? Enjeux et dynamique de la consommation d'alcool au sud du Tchad. In Ressources vivrières et choix alimentaires dans le basin du Tchad 2002 E. Garine, O. Langlois, C. Raimond (ed.), 501:527.
  49. Maoura Nanadoum, Mbaiguinam Mbailao, Nguyen Huu Vang, Gaillardin Claude, Pourquie Jacques 2005, Identification and typing of the yeast strains isolated from bili bili, a traditional sorghum beer of Chad, African Journal of Biotechnology 4 (7), 646:656.
  50. McCall Michael 1996, Rural Brewing, Exclusion, and Development Policy-Making, Gender and Development 4(3), 29:38.
  51. Michodjèhoun-Mestres Laetitia, Hounhouigan D. Joseph, Dossou Joseph, Mestres Christian 2005, Physical, chemical and microbiological changes during natural fermentation of "gowé", a sprouted or non sprouted sorghum beverage from West-Africa, African Journal of Biotechnology 4 (6), 487:496.
  52. Nago C. M. 1985, Le Chakpalo. Boisson Fermentée à Base de Maïs produite au Bénin. Etude Technologique et Biochimique". In Development of Indigenous Fermented Foods and Food Technology in Africa, ed. International Foundation for Science (IFS), 238-261. Stockholm / Sweden.
  53. Nanadoum M. 2001, La "bili-bili", bière traditionnelle tchadienne: études technologiques et microbiologiques. Thèse agronomie, Inst. National de Paris-Grignon.
  54. Netting Mc.C. 1965, Beer as a locus of value among the West African Kofyar. American Anthropologist 66(2), 375:384.
    • The Kofyar are farmers of sorghum, millet, and beans, living in the southern Jos Plateau, Northern Nigeria.
  55. N’Guessan Florent K., N’Dri Denis Y., Camara Fatoumata, Djè Marcellin K. 2010, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis as starter cultures for the alcoholic fermentation of tchapalo, a traditional sorghum beer, World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 26, 693:699.
  56. Nkanga E. J. 1981, The microbiology of ‘Oyokpo’, a traditionally fermented millet beer in Bendel state of Nigeria, Acta Biotechnologica 1, 41:47.
  57. Nzelibe Humphrey C. 1995, The brewing potential of "Acha" (Digitaria Exius) malt compared with Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Typhoides) malts and sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) malts, Journal of the Institute of Brewing 101, 345:350.
  58. Orji M.U., Mbata T.I., Aniche G.N., Ahonkhai I. 2003, The use of starter cultures to produce ‘Pito’, a Nigerian fermented alcoholic beverage, World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 19, 733:736.
  59. Pearlstone Zena 1973, Sujang: A Stirrup Spout Vessel from Nigeria, American Antiquity 38(4), 482:486.
  60. Périssé Julien, Adrian Jean, Rerat Alain, Le Berre Simone 1959, Bilan nutritif de la transformation du sorgho en bière : préparation, composition, consommation d'une bière du Togo. Annales de Nutrition et Alimentation, ORSTOM, 13(1) suppl. 4, 1:15.
  61. Perrot Claude-Helène 1990, Semailles et moissons dans la région d'Assinie vers 1700, Journal des Africanistes 60, 9:26.
    • Historical evidence on the coast of Africa (Aby lagoon, south-east of Ivory Coast) : palm wine and millet beer.
  62. Portères Roland 1951, Eleusine coracana Gaertner, céréale des humanités pauvres des pays tropicaux, 6 fig, 3 pl., 2 photos, 1 carte, Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique noire (Dakar) XIII(1), 1:78.
    • Originating in Ethiopian Africa (Eritrea / Natal), or India (Hindustan), or Sinhalese, the finger millet is transformed into beer when all other cereals (millet, sorghum, fonio, barley, wheat) are missing or cannot be grown. The understanding of the origins of Eleusine has increased since Portères's pioneering work.
  63. Rehfish Farnham 1962, Competitive Beer Drinking among the Mambila, Cahier d'Etudes Africaines 3(1), 51:103. Réd in Constructive Drinking 1987, Mary Douglas (ed), Cambridge University Press, Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 135:145.
  64. Sanni A. I., Oso B. A. 1988, The production of Agadagidi - A Nigerian fermented beverage, Die Nahrung 32, 319:326.
  65. Sanni A.I., Onilude A.A., Fadahunsi I.F., Afolabi R.O. 1999, Microbial deterioration of traditional alcoholic beverages in Nigeria, Food Research International 32(4), 163:167.
  66. Saul M. 1981, Beer, Sorghum and Women: production for the market in rural Upper Volta, Africa 51(3), 746:764.
  67. Sawadogo-Lingani H., Lei V., Diawara B., Nielsen D.S., Møller P.L., Traore A.S., Jakobsen M. 2007, The biodiversity of predominant lactic acid bacteria in dolo and pito wort for the production of sorghum beer, Journal of Applied Microbiology 103, 765:777.
  68. Sefa-Dedeh S., Asante, S. 1988, Traditional alcoholic beverage from cereal in Ghana: processing of pito and burukutu in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. KIFP Food Syst Res Rep No. 1, 39 pp.
  69. Sefa-Dedeh S. 1991, Cereal-based traditional beverages from Ghana: Process and product characteristics of pito. In Traditional African Foods Quality and Nutrition, ed. International Foundation for Science (IFS), 1-8. Stockholm / Sweden.
  70. Sefa-Dedeh S., Sanni A.I., G. Tetteh,Sakyi-Dawson E. 1999, Yeasts in the traditional brewing of pito in Ghana, World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 15, 593:597.
  71. Treillon R., Gattegno I. 1984, Cannettes contre calebasse ou une comparaison économique des bières industrielles et des bières traditionnelles au Burkina-Faso. In Nourrir les villes en Afrique Saharienne, ed. ALTERSIAL – ORSTOM - CERED.
  72. Ugochukwu Françoise 2001, Le boire en pays igbo : le vin parle pour eux, Journaldes Africanistes 71(2), 33:47.
  73. van der Drift, Roy 2002, Democracy's Heady Brew: Cashew Wine and the Authority of the Elders among the Balanta in Guinea-Bissau. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, ed. D. F. Bryceson, 179-196. Portsmouth NH.
  74. Yao A.K., Kadio G., Coulybaly A., Agbo G.Z. 1995, Production du ‘Tchapalo’ à partir du sorgho en Côte d’Ivoire. In Processing and industrial utilization of sorghum and related cereals in Africa. Proceeding of the OUA/ STRCSAFGRAD regional symposiumed. Menyonga, J.M. Bezuneh, T. Nwasike, C.C. Sedogo P.M., Tenkouano A., Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso,  55:60.

    

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22/05/2020  Christian Berger