General considerations

  1. Bryceson Deborah Fahy 2002a, Alcohol in Africa: Substance, Stimulus, and Society. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, ed. D. F. Bryceson, Portsmouth NH, 3:22.
  2. Bryceson Deborah Fahy 2002b, Changing Modalities of Alcohol Usage. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, ed. D. F. Bryceson, Portsmouth NH, 23:52.
  3. Dietler Michael 2001, Theorizing the Feast: Rituals of consumption, Commensal Politics and Power in African Contexts. In Archaeological and Ethnographic Perspectives on Food, Politics and Power, ed. Michael Dietler and Brian Hayden, 65-114. Smithsonian Institution Press.
  4. Huetz de Lemps Alain 2001, Boissons et civilisations en Afrique. Presses universitaires de Bordeaux, France.
  5. McCall Michael K. 2002, Brewers, Woodfuel, and Donors: an Awkward Silence as the Fires Blaze. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, ed. D. F. Bryceson, Portsmouth NH, 93:114.
  6. Potocki Anne-Christine 1987, Alcoolisation dans les pays africains.
    • Many details on African traditional brewery, its methods of brewing and its drinking manners of beer.





  1. Borchardt L. 1897, Zeitschrift fuer Aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 35, 128.
  2. Breasted James Henry 1906, Ancient Record of Egypt. Historical Documents vol. I The first to the seventeenth dynasties.
  3. Bruce James, Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, Volume VII.
  4. Burckhart John Lewis 1822, Travels in Nubia (2nd edition), London.
  5. Cauville S. 2002, Dendara. Les fêtes d'Hathor, Orientalia Lovaniensa Analecta 105.
  6. C. L. R 1914,Pots with Hieratic Inscriptions, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 9(11), 236:243.
  7. Darby William, Ghaliounghi Paul, Grivetti Louis 1977, Food: The Gift of Osiris. Vol I & II.
  8. Doyen Florence, Warmenbol Eugène 2004, Pain et Bière en Egypte ancienne, de la table à l'offrande. Guides archéologiques du Malgré-Tout. Catalogue de l'exposition à Teignes (4 avril-12 décembre 2004).
    • Plentiful illustrations. The brewery is perfectly situated in its economic context : agriculture and the social management of grain.
  9. Drexhage H.-J. 1997, Bierprodutzen und Bierhändler in der papyrologischen Überlieferung, Münstersche Beiträge zur antiken Handelsgeschichte 16, 32-39.
  10. Faltings D. 1991, Die Bierbrauerei im Alten Reich, Zeitschrift fur Agyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 118, 104.
  11. Gardiner Alan Henderson, Ancient Egyptian Onomastica, 2 volumes, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1947.
  12. Geller Jeremy R. 1989, Cahiers de Recherche de l’lnstitut de Papyrologie et Egyptologie de Lille, 1989, 11,41.
  13. Geller Jeremy 1992a, Predynastic Beer Production at Hierakonpolis, Upper Egypt: Archaeological Evidence and Anthropological Implications. Ph.D. Diss. Washington University, Saint Louis.
    • The most ancient brewing workshop discovered to date in the world (˜ 3800 BCE).
  14. Geller Jeremy R. 1992b, From prehistory to history: Beer in Egypt, in The Followers of Horus, R. Friedman and B. Adams (eds), Oxbow Books, Oxford, 19:26.
  15. Geller Jeremy R. 1993, Bread and Beer in Fourth Egypt, Food and Foodways 5(3), 255:267.
  16. Germer R. 1985, Flora des Pharaonischen Agypten, Deutsches Archaologisches Institut, Abteilung Kairo, Sonderschrift 14, Von Zabern, Mainz.
  17. Goyon Jean-Claude 1992, Hathor, l'ivraie et l'ivresse, Cercle Lyonnais d'Egyptologie Victor Loret, Bulletin n° 6, 4-16.
    • The celebrations for the festival of Hathor. This goddess became benefactor after having personified the destruction of the human race ordred by Ra. Famous Egyptian myth of the enraged Lioness goddess, but later made intoxicated with a red beer brewed and spread on earth by the Baboon god.
  18. Graff Gwenola 2007, A propos d’une brasseuse de bière prédynastique : évolution iconographique et attestations archéologiques. Journal ot the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 34, 83-106.
  19. Helbaek H. 1959, Science 130, 14th August, 365.
  20. Helbaek H. 1964, New Phytologist 63, 158.
  21. Helck Wolfgang 1971, Das Bier im Alten Ägypten. GGBB Berlin.
    • Essential reference. The only comprehensive study undertaken by an Egyptologist on beer and brewing, when we put apart more recent studies which focus on one topic or another.
  22. Ishida H., Master Brewers Association of the Americas, Technical Quarterly, 2002, 39(2), 81.
  23. Janssen Jac J. 1997, Village Varia. Ten studies on the history and administration of Deir-el-Medina.
  24. Janssen Jac J. 1975, Commodity Prices from the Ramessid Period.
  25. Kaiser Kevin Robert 2003, Water, Milk, Beer and Wine for the Living and the Dead: Egyptian and Syro-Palestinian Bes-Vessels from the New Kingdom through the Greaco-roman Period. PhD University of California, Berkeley.
  26. Kemp Barry 1989, Ancient Egypt, Anatomy of a Civilisation, Routledge, London.
  27. Kemp Barry, Samuel Delwen, Luuf Rosemary 1994, Food for an Egyptian city: Tell el-Amarna, in Whither Environmental Archaeology? R. Luff and P. Rowley-Conwy (eds), Oxbow Books, Oxford, 133:170.
  28. Kubiak-Martens L., Langer JJ. 2008, Predynastic brewing based on botanical and physicochemical evidence from Tell el-Farkha, Eastern Delta. In: Midant-Reynes B, Tristant Y, Rowland J, Hendrickx S, editors. Egypt at its origins 2: Proceedings of the international conference "Origin of the State, Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt," Toulouse (France), 5th–8th September 2005. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta. Leuven: Peeters; 2008. p. 425–39.
  29. Lane E.W. 1860, An Account of the Manners and Customs of Modern Egyptians, John Murray, London.
  30. Letzing Heinrich 1996, Zum altägyptischen Bier. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Jahrbuch 1996, 195:217.
    • Comments on Delwen Samuel's work about the Egyptian brewing technicals and malting (see Samuel 1966a).
  31. Link Barbara 2010, Bier und Bierbrauen im Alten Ägypten Von der Vorzeit bis zum Neuen Reich, THOTs Heft 8.
  32. Lucas A. 1962, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, 4th ed, Revision by J.R. Harris, Edward Arnold, London.
    • A classic reference, but largely outdated (better see Helck 1971, Samuel 1996a).
  33. Maksoud S.A., El Hadidi M.N., Amer W.M. 1994, Beer from the early dynasties (3500–3400 cal B.C.) of Upper Egypt, detected by archaeochemical methods, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 3, 219:224.
  34. Manniche Lise 1999, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum, London.
  35. Montet Pierre 1925, Les Scènes de la vie privée dans les tombeaux égyptiens de l'Ancien Empire, Faculté des Lettres de l'universite de strasbourg, Fascicule 24.
    • Bread and beer making are quite well explained pp. 230-256.
  36. Morcos Sabry, Hegazi S. M., El-Damhougy Soraya 1973, Fermented Foods of Common Use in Egypt II. The chemical Composition of bouza and its Ingredients, J. of Science for Food & Agriculture 24, 1157-1161.
  37. Murray M. A., Boulton N., Heron C. 2000, Viticulture and wine production, in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, P.T. Nicholson and I. Shaw (eds), Cambridge University Press.
  38. Murray M. A. 2000a, Cereal production and processing, in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, P.T. Nicholson and I. Shaw (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  39. Murray M. A. 2000b, Fruits, vegetables, pulses and condiments, in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, P.T. Nicholson and I. Shaw (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  40. Nesbitt M., Samuel D. 1996, From staple crop to extinction? The archaeology and history of the hulled wheats, in Hulled Wheats, 1898-9, Egypt Exploration Fund, London, S. Padulosi, K. Hammer and J. Heller (eds), International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.
  41. O’Rourke T. 2002, The Brewer International 2(8), 21.
  42. Palmer R. 1994, Background to wine as an agricultural commodity, in Wine inthe Mycenean Palace Economy, R. Palmer (ed), University of Liege.
  43. Peters-Desteract Madeleine 2005, Pain, bière et toutes bonnes choses … L'alimentation dans l'Egypte ancienne.
    • Chap. 6 for the bakery, 7 for the brewery. Abundant illustrations of frescoes and drawn objects.
  44. Petrie W.M.F. 1901, Diospolis Parva, The Cemeteries of Abadiyeh and Hu, 1898-9, Egypt Exploration Fund, London.
  45. Petrie W.M.F. 1920, Prehistoric Egypt, 2 volumes, London.
  46. Philippe M. 1926, Die Braukunst der alten Ägypter im Lichte heutiger Brautechnick, in Bier und Bierbereitung bei den Völkern der Urzeit I. Babylonien und Ägypten. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Institut für Sürungsgewerbe, Berlin; pp. 55-57.
    • The author tries to find the brewing ratios after the cuneiform tablets. Innovative approach based on the fundamentals of beer brewing. The laws of biochemistry were applicable to Mesopotamians brewers as well as today. One can find their technical ratios hidden behind the volumes of raw materials used and the volumes of beer brewed. A studie much devoted to Babylonians than to Egyptians.
  47. Samuel Delwen 1994a, Cereal food processing in ancient Egypt: a case study of integration, in Whither Environmental Archaeology? R. Luff and P. Rowley-Conwy (eds), Oxbow Books, Oxford.
  48. Delwen Samuel's website with free access to her own major publications :
  49. Samuel Delwen 1993, Ancient Egyptian cereal processing: beyond the artistic record, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 3, 276:283.
  50. Samuel Delwen 1994, A new look at bread and beer, Egyptian Archaeology 4, 9:11.
  51. Samuel Delwen 1996a, Investigation of ancient Egyptian baking and brewing methods by correlative microscopy, Science 273, 488:490.
    • Ancient Egyptian methods of baking and brewing are investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy of desiccated bread loaves and beer remains. The results suggest that current conceptions about ancient Egyptian bread and beer making should be modified. Bread was made not only with flour from raw grain, but sometimes also with malt and with yeast. Brewing blended cooked and uncooked malt with water; the mixture was strained free of husk before inoculation with yeast.
  52. Samuel Delwen 1996b, Archaeology of ancient Egyptian beer, Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 54/1, 3:11.
    • Fundamental article of the British researcher. More developed than its article from 1996 about beer and the Egyptian methods for saccharify the starch.
  53. Samuel Delwen 1999, Bread Making and Social Interactions at the Amarna Workmen's Village, Egypt, World Archaeology 31(1), 121:144.
    • Complete the data already published on another ancient village (Middle Kingdom) excavated in its entirety, Deir el-Medina.
  54. Samuel Delwen 2000, Brewing and baking, in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, P.T. Nicholson and I. Shaw (eds), Cambridge University Press.
    • Synthesis written for an encyclopedic article.
  55. Smith, Stuart Tyson 2003. Pharaohs, Feast and Foreigners: Cooking, Foodways and Agency on Ancient Egypt's Southern Frontier. In The Archaeology and Politics of Food and Feasting in Early States and Empires, ed. Tamara L. Bray, 39-64. New-York.
  56. Spalinger A. 1993, A Chronological Analysis of the Feast t³y, Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 20.
  57. Strouhal E. 1992, Life in Ancient Egypt, Cambridge University Press.
  58. Teramoto Y., Yoshisa S., Ueda S. 2001, Egyptian boza and a fermentable yeast strain isolated from the wheat bread – World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 17, 241:243.
  59. Vandier Jacques 1964, Manuel d'archéologie égyptienne, Tome IV : bas-reliefs et Peintures. Scènes de la vie quotidienne, Editions A. & J. Picard et Cie.
    • Bread and beer making are quite well explained pp. 272-318.
  60. Winlock H. E. 1955,Models of Daily Life in Ancient Egypt, from the Tomb of Meket-Re' at Thebes. Publication of the Metropolitan Museum of Art Egyptian Expedition, New York, 17.
  61. Yellin J. & al. 1986, The Provenience of Beer bottles from Deir el-Balah: a study by Neutron Activation Analysis. Israel Exploration Journal 6, 68:73.
    • The famous egyptian beer-pots found in Palestine and made on-site => Egyptian influence at the time of Middle-Empire when the Levantine area was under Egyptian protection.



Soudan, Ethiopie, Somalie, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi, Tanzanie, Mozambique, Malawi.


  1. Abbink Jon 1997, Competing Practices of Drinking and Power: Alcoholic "Hegemonism" in Southern Ethiopia, Northeast African Studies 4(3), 7:22.
  2. Abbink Jon 2002, Drinking, Prestige, and Power: Alcohol and Cultural Hegemony in Maji, Southern Ethiopia. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, ed. D. F. Bryceson, 161-178. Portsmouth NH.
  3. Abegaz Kebede, Beyene Fekadu, Langsrud Thor, Narvhus Judith A. 2002, Indigenous processing methods and raw materials of borde, an Ethiopian traditional fermented beverage, The Journal of Food Technology in Africa 7(3), 59:64.
  4. Abegaz Kebede, Beyene Fekadu, Langsrud Thor, Narvhus Judith A. 2002, Parameters of processing and microbial changes during fermentation of borde, a traditional Ethiopian beverage, The Journal of Food Technology in Africa 7(3), 85:92.
  5. Adriaens E. L., Lozet F. 1951, Contribution à l'étude des boissons fermentées indigènes au Rwanda. In Bulletin Agricole du Congo-Belge XLII(4), 934:949.
  6. Arthur J. 2003, Brewing beer: Status, wealth and ceramic use alteration among the Gamo of southwestern Ethiopia. World Archaeology 34: 516-528.
  7. Ashenafi Mogessie, Mehari Tetemke 1995, Some microbiological and nutritional properties of Borde and Shamita, traditional Ethiopian fermented beverages, The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 9(2).
  8. Carlson R. G. 1990, Banana beer, Reciprocity, and Ancestor Propriation among the Haya of Burkoba, Tanzania, Ethnology 29(4), 297:312.
  9. Dietler Michael, Herbich Ingrid 2006 Liquid material culture: following the flow of beer among the Luo of Kenya (with Ingrid Herbich), in Hans-Peter Wotzka (ed.), Grundlegungen. Beiträge zur europäischen und afrikanischen Archäologie für Manfred K. H. Eggert (Tübingen: Francke, 2006) 395–407.
    • The Luo live on the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya, farming, herding and fishing. The material and cultural practices of the Luo, from the fields of sorghum, millet and maize, to cassava and potatoes, to the distribution and consumption of beer, are revealed by tracing and describing the technical and social circulation of beer. Valuable technical diagrams on p. 401 show two types of beer (kwete and otia) and their two brewing methods.
    • => Liquid material culture following the flow of beer among the Luo of Kenya
  10. Dirar Hamid A. 1978, A microbiological study of Sudanese merissa brewing, Journal of Food Science 43, 1683:6.
  11. Dirar Hamid A. 1993. The Indigenous Fermented Foods of the Sudan. CAB International, UK.
    • An outstanding study of traditional brewing techniques used by the so-called "animist" peoples of Sudan. It shows that the complexity of the technical brewing schemas is not apannage of the modern industrial beer.
  12. Edwards David N. 1996, Sorghum, Beer, and Kushite Society, Norwegian Archaeological Review29, 65:77.
  13. El Nour M.E.M., El-Tigani S., Dirar Hamid 1999, A microbiological study of Hussuwa: a traditional Sudanese fermented food from germinated Sorghum bicolor c.v. feterita, World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 15, 305:308.
  14. Griaule Marcel 1934, D'un mode aberrant de conservation de l'hydromel au Godjam, Journal de la Société des Africanistes 4(2), 279:284.
  15. Hakimje M. 1985, Preliminary Study of Traditional Cassava Fermentation in Tanzania and the Amylolytic Activity of the Microorganisms. In Development of Indigenous Fermented Foods and Food Technology in Africa, ed. International Foundation for Science (IFS), 126-137. Stockholm / Sweden.
  16. Hesse G. 1997, Hirsebierkonsum in Norkordofan, Erfurter Geographische Studien 5, 141-147.
  17. Holtzman John 2001, Food of Elders, the “Ration” of Women: Brewing, Gender, and Domestic Processes among the Samburu of Northern Kenya, American Anthropologist103(4), 1041:1058.
  18. Kutalek Ruth 2011, Ritual Use of Beer in South-West Tanzania. In Liquid Bread. Beer and Brewing in Cross-Cultural Perspective ed. by Wulf Schiefenhövel & Hellen Macbeth, 159:170.
  19. Nout MJR 1980, Microbiological aspects of the traditional manufacture of Busaa, a Kenyan opaque maize beer. Chem Mikrobiol Technol Lebensm 6, 137:42.
  20. Partanen Juha 1991, Sociability and Intoxication: Alcohol and Drinking in Kenya, Africa, and the Modern World. Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Helsinki.
  21. Pietilä Tuulikki 2002, Drinking Mothers Feeding Children: Market Women and Gender Politics in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, ed. D. F. Bryceson, 197-211. Portsmouth NH.
  22. Rekdal O. B. 1996, Money, Milk and Sorghum Beer: change and continuity among the Iraqw of Tanzania, Africa 66(3), 367:385.
  23. Sable S., Abegaz BG 1991, The microbiology of tella fermentation. Ethiop J Sci 14, 81:92.
  24. Tanzarn Nite Baza 2002, Liquid Gold of a Lost Kingdom: the Rise of Waragi Production in Kibaale District, Uganda. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, ed. D. F. Bryceson, 75-92. Portsmouth NH.
  25. Tellegen N. 1997, Brewing women and drinking men: the costs of beer in rural Malawi, In van der Glas (eds), Under pressure : essays on development research, Utrecht, 37:55.
  26. Teramoto Y., Sato R., Ueda S. 2005, Characteristics of fermentation yeast isolated from traditional Ethiopian honey wine, ogol, African Journal of Biotechnology 4(2), 160:163.
  27. Trouwborst A. A. 1970, Quelques aspects symboliques des échanges de bière au Burundi, In Claessen and Kloos (eds.), Anniversary Contribution in Anthropology, Leiden, 143:152.
  28. van Dijk Rijk 2002, Modernity's Limits: Pentecostalism and the Moral Rejection of Alcohol in Malawi. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, ed. D. F. Bryceson, 249-264. Portsmouth NH.
  29. Willis Justin 2002a, Potent Brews. A Social History of Alcohol in East Africa 1850-1999. Eastern African Studies. Kampala.
  30. Willis Justin 2002b, For Women and Children: An Economic History of Brewing among the Nyakyusa of Southwestern Tanzania. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, D. F. Bryceson (ed.), Portsmouth NH, 55:73.



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22/05/2020  Christian Berger