Beer studies for Europe since neolithic times.


  1. Badert G. 1916, Geschichte der Brauereiarbeiterbewegung, Verband der Brauerei und Mühlenarbeiter und verwandter Berugsgenossen, Berlin.
  2. Ball M. 1977, The Worshipful Company ofBrewers, Hutchinson Benham, London.
  3. Barat Louis 1916, Les Bactéries suspectes des Bières Flamandes, Thèse pour le doctorat en médecine, Faculté de médecine de Paris.
  4. Barbier Frédéric 1984, La consommation des boissons à Valenciennes au XIXè siècle : le vin et la bière (1826-1895). In Les Boissons : production et consommation aux XIXè et XXè siècle, Actes du 106è congrès national des sociétés savantes, Perpignan. 73:85.
  5. Barnard 1889-1891, Noted Breweries of Great Britain and Ireland, 4 volumes, Joseph Causton and Sons, London.
  6. Behre Karl-Ernst 1984, Zur Geschichte der Bierwürzen nach Fruchtfunden und schriftlichen Quellen, in Plants and ancient man, Studies in palaeoethnobotany, W. Van Zeist & W. A. Casparie (eds), Rotterdam - Boston, 115:122.
  7. Behre Karl-Ernst 1998, Zur Geschichte des Bieres und der Bierwürzen in Mitteleuropa, in Gerstensaft und Hirsebier, 5000 Jarhe Biergenuß, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland Helft 20, Schloßmuseum Jever Heflt 19, Oldenburg, 49:89.
  8. Beer! The Story of Holland's Favourite Drink (collectif) 1984. Batavian Lion, Amsterdam. First published in Dutch, Bier! Geschiedenis van een volksdrank, De Bataafsche Leeuw.
    • Remarkable documentary work: archaeological excavations, historical research, and artwork (paintings and engravings Dutch).
  9. Bennett Judith 1996a, Beer and Brewsters in England: Women's Work in a Changing World, 1300-1600. Oxford Univ Press.
  10. Bennett Judith 1996b, Women and men in the Brewer's Gild of London, ca. 1420, in The Salt of Common Life: Individuality and Choice in the Medieval Town, Countryside and Church, E.B. DeWindt (ed), Studies in Medieval Culture, Kalamazoo, Michigan.
  11. Bickerdyke's 1965, The Curiosities of Ale and Beer.
  12. Bier, unserer Volksgetränk. Ein Dokumentarisches Bildwerk über das Bier 1957, Verlag Hans Carl Nürnberg, München.
  13. Bing W. 1909, Hamburgs Bierbrauerei vom 14. bis 18. Jahrhundert, Zeitschrift des Vereins für Hamburgische Geschichte 14, 209:332.
  14. Binsfeld W. 1972, Eine Bierverlegerin aus Trier. Zu CIL XII 450*, Germania 50, 256:258.
    • An inscription on the tombstone of a woman mentions "cerevisia" (2nd-3rd century).
  15. Birk Jürgen 1997, Ein römishes Bier aus Alzey. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Jahrbuch 1997, 5:12.
    • Identification of residues of fermented barley + honey at the bottom of a dolium buried in a Roman tomb (c. 352). Alzey is located present day in the Rhineland-Palatinate.
  16. Blankenburg Christine von 2001, Die Hanse und ihr Bier. Brauwesens und Bierhandel im hansischen Verkehrsgebeit. Quellen und Darstellungen zur hansischen Geschichte Neue Folge/Band LI, Böhlau Verlag, Köln – Weimar - Wien.
    • An outstanding academic work on the role of beer in the history and economy of the Hanseatic League (400 p).
  17. Bodeux Jean-Luc 2011, Bières et brasseries des 2 Luxembourg, Weyrich Edition.
  18. Boesmans Annick 1982, Bieren en Pintelieren, Provincial Openluchtmuseul Bokrijk. Catalog of the exposition.
  19. Bracker J. 1994, Hopbier uit Hamburg in Bier! Geschiedenis van een volksdrank, R.E. Kistenaker and V.T. van Vislteren (eds), De Bataafsche Leeuw, Amsterdam.
  20. Brown M., Willmot B. 1998, Brewed in Northants, Brewery History Society.
  21. Bushnan J.S. 1853, Burton and its Bitter Beer, W.S. Orr and Co., London.
  22. Cahen Maurice 1921, La libation, Paris.
  23. Campbell Andrew 1956, The Book of Beer, London.
  24. Carpenter Kim Newak 1998, "Sechs Kreuzer sind genug für ein Bier!". The Munich beer riot of 1844: social protest and public disorder in Mid-19th century Bavaria. PhD Georgetown University, Washington DC.
  25. Clark Christine 1998, The British Malting Industry since 1930, London & Rio Grande.
  26. Child S. 1978, Every Man His Own Brewer, 6th ed., J. Ridgway, London.
  27. Cobbett William 1833, Cottage economy : containing information relative to the brewing of beer ... to which is added The poor man's friend; or, A defence of the rights of those who do the work and fight the battles. N.Y.
  28. Cohen Maurice 1921, Etudes sur le vocabulaire religieux du vieux scandinave. La Libation. Lib. H. Champion, Paris.
  29. Colin Jean-Claude, Potel-Jehl jean-Dany 1989, La bière en Alsace, Editions Coprur.
  30. Confrérie Gambrinus A.S.B.L. 1993, Onse Be'er Ass Gudd! La bière et les brasseries luxembourgeoises, Ed. Schortgen, Grand Duché du Luxembourg.
  31. Cornell Martyn 2003, Beer, the story of the pint. The history of Britain's most popular drink. Headline Book Pub., London.
    • The first chapters are focusing on beer among the Celts, the ancient Britons and Saxons.
  32. Crendal Gérard-François 1734, Lettre sur la Bière. Bibliotheca Cerevisia Volume I. Lille 1987.
    • Physician at the Royal Hospital of Valenciennes, alderman of the city, the author denounces the clarification of beer with lime or the gelatine extracted from hooves of cattle. Testimony on the practices of brewers of the city at that time.
  33. Deckers Joseph 1970, Recherches sur les brasseries de la région mosane au Moyen-Age,  Le Moyen Âge, T. 76, 1970, 446-491.
    • This noteworthy article traces the evolution of brewing in the Middle Meuse Valley between 800 and 1350. After having examined all the available documents (charters, polyptychs, censuses, notarial acts, donations, etc.) mentioning breweries, brewers, or duties to be paid on beer, he drew up a list of 211 localities divided into 4 chronological periods: 800-1000, 1000-1200, 1200-1300 and 1300-1350. J. Deckers has located them on a map. Between 800 and 1000, the modest number of breweries increased regularly. They remained linked to the foundation of new abbeys or to the increase in their landholdings (Hobbes, Thuin, Gembloux, Florennes, Waulsort, St Trond, Stavelot-Malmédy, etc.). The development of the breweries was evident from 1200 onwards and accelerated after 1250. Around 1350, there were almost 400 breweries in the Meuse valley, which were very unevenly distributed. Most of them are concentrated in Hesbaye, a rich cereal-growing area on the left bank of the Meuse, between Namur and Liège.) Article difficult to find, digitised by Beer-Studies. Downoad here
  34. Deckers Joseph 1971, Gruit et droit de gruit : aspects techniques et fiscaux de la fabrication de la bière dans la région mosane au moyen âge., Handelingen van het XLIe congres te Mechelen (3-6/X/1970), 1971.
    • A thorough investigation of the question of medieval gruit, its nature and function in the brewing of medieval beers. Deckers argues for the aromatic function of gruit. The technical function of gruit remains a controversial issue. See Susan Verberg 2018. Download here
  35. Delorme  M.-F. 1988, Le rôle des moines dans l'histoire de la cervoise et de la bière.
    • Nice little presentation with some interesting references on the time of Charlemagne, the Merovingian kings, Monks and Germans.
  36. Desart Robert s.d., Les vieux estaminets. L'œuvre folklorique de robert Desart, Bruxelles.
    • The disappeared Brussels, animated with taverns, and his amateurs of gueuze and faro.
  37. Desart Robert s.d., Les mémoires de Jef Lambic. Editions "La technique belge", Bruxelles.
    • This manuscript, whatever a zwanze (a brusselian joke) or a genuine one, is a proof that beer, lambic in this case, may serve and dip the cultural life of a whole city, and then (almost) disappears.
  38. Dietler Michael 1990, Driven by drink: The role of drinking in the political economy and the case of early Iron Age France. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9: 352-406.
  39. Dietler Michael 1996, Food, Power and Status in Prehistoric Europe. In Food and the Status Quest, ed. Polly Wiessner and Wulf Schiefenhövel, 87-125. Oxford USA.
  40. Dineley Merryn 1999, Barley, Malt and Ale in the Neolithic, M. Phil Thesis BA University of Manchester.
    • The author's thesis. Application of basic biochemical principles of the brewing in order to rebuild the processes used by early farmers in northern Europe to brew beer. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 are particularly innovative. The brewing traditions of Central, Northern Europe and British Isles are indigenous, not "imported" from a hypothetical craddle in Middle East (Mesopotamia, Egypt?). To overcome the scarcity of current archaeological evidence, Mary Dineley proposes an experimental approach to test the old processes with the means of the time.
  41. Dineley Merryn, Dineley G. 2000, Neolithic Ale: Barley as a source of malt sugars for fermentation, in Plants in Neolithic Britain and beyond, Oxbow Books, Oxford.
  42. Dineley Merryn 2004, Barley, Malt and Ale in the Neolithic, 19-25.
  43. Donnachie Ian 1979, A History of the Brewing Industry in Scotland, John Donald, Edinburgh.
  44. Dumézil Georges 1924, Le Festin d'immortalité, Geuthner Paris.
    • Exploring the theme of fermented beverages conferring immortality in the Indo-European mythologies. A fruitful comparative approach. An essential work, even if it has later been partially repudiated by Dumezil, when he denounced the temptation to find a close homogeneity between the ancient historical and technical reality, and the facts described by mythological texts.
  45. Dumézil Georges 1936, Un mythe relatif à la fermentation de la bière, in Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Section des sciences religieuses, annuaire 1936-37, Paris, 5:15.
    • Starting from a song in the Kalevala (a Finnish text) in which a brewer initiates the fermentation of beer with drool of a boar, Dumezil analyzes the role of saliva in the Northern European mythology. He complements "Festin d'immortalité" (1924). Adam Maurizio (1933) has used the same Kalevala runes in his search for ancient brewing technologies in Europe.
  46. Dyer Christopher 1984, Les régimes alimentaires en Angleterre, XIIIème–XVème siècles, in Manger et Boire au Moyen-Age, Actes du Colloque de Nice T.2, 263:274.
  47. Feller Joachim 1936, Valeur de la Bière dans l'alimentation, Thèse pour le doctorat en médecine, Faculté de médecine de Paris.
  48. Fischer Gert, Gansohr Heidi, Heizman Berthold, Herborn Wolfgang, Schultze-Berndt Hand Günter 1985, Bierbrauen im Rheinland, Führer und Schriften des Rhein. Freilichtmuseums Kommern 28, Köln.
  49. Frank Beatrice 1996, Martin Luther und das Bier. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Jahrbuch 1996, 31:38.
    • Why bread and beer do they replace the bread and wine? Arguments by an historical master in theology.
  50. Frankisches Brauereimuseum 1989, Aus Liebe zur Brautradition und reinem, frischen Bier (10 Jahre Fränkisches Brauereimuseum), Nürnberg.
  51. Freudenberg Frank P. 1996, Bier-Metropole BERLIN. Biergeschichte, Brauereien und Kneipen der Haupstadt, Verlag Hans Carl Nürnberg.
  52. Gaessner H. 1941, Bier und bierartige Getränke im germanischen Kulturkreis. Gesselschaft für die Bibliographie und die Geschichte des Brauwesens, Berlin.
  53. Gamblum 1889, Les Bières Belges, Bruxelles.
  54. Glamann Kristof 2005, Beer and Brewing in Pre-industrial Denmark, Syddansk Universitetsforlag.
  55. Gourvish T.R., Wilson R.G. 1994, The British Brewing Industry 1830-1980, Cambridge University Press.
  56. Grand-Carteret John 1886, Raphaël et Gambrinus ou l'Art dans la Brasserie, Paris.
  57. (Das) Grosse Lexikon vom Bier, collectif s.d. (c. 1985), Stuttgart.
    • A very rich colour illustration. Germanic documentary and iconographic sources mostly.
  58. Grostøl Alf 1970, Den lille håndbrygeer. Kortfattet indførelse i håndbrygningens etik og teknik. Grevas Forlag, Århus.
    • Introduction to the technique of craft brewing for a Danish speaking apprentice.
  59. Grüss J. 1931, Zwei altgermanische Trinkhörner mit Bier- und Metresten, Praehistorische Zeitschrift, Band XXII, Berlin, 180:187.
  60. Hackel-Stehr Karin 1987, Das Brauwesen in Bayern, Dissertation, Gesellschaft für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit der Deutschen Brauwirtschaft, Berlin.
  61. Hagen A. 1995, A Second Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Food and Drink: Production and Distribution, Anglo-Saxon Books, Hockwold, Norfolk.
  62. Hackwood FW. 1910, Inns, Ales and Drinking Customs of Old England, T. Fisher Unwin, London.
  63. Harisson Jane Ellen 1922. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion, pp 422-424 bruton, zuthos et autres sortes de bière, p. 442 Bromios or Sabazios or Braites, the
  64. Havet Yves 1987, Le Houblon de Flandre française, publié par Menschen Lyk Wyder.
  65. Hawkins K.H. 1978, A History of Bass, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  66. Heiss AG, Azorin MB, Antolin F, Kubiak-Martens L, Marinova E, Arendt EK, & al. 2020, Mashes to Mashes, Crust to Crust. Presenting a novel microstructural marker for malting in the archaeological record. PLOS One 2020.
  67. Hell Bertrand 1991, La force de la bière. Approche d'une récurrence symbolique dans les systèmes de représentation de l'Europe nord-occidentale, in Le Ferment Divin, ed D. Fournier et S. D'Onofrio, Coll. Ethnologie de la France 12, 109-124.
  68. Hermann Wilhelm 2000, Die Schüleins. Aufstieg, Enteignung und Flucht. Zur Geschichte einer jüdischen BrauereiFamilie in München, Münchner historia, München.
  69. Hüber E. 1934, Bier und Brauerei im Bereich der Hanse. Jahrbuch der Gesselschaft für die Bibliographie und die Geschichte des Brauwesens, Institut für Gärungsgewerbe, Berlin, 50:66.
    • Role and importance of the brewery in the Hanseatic trade.
  70. Huntemann Hans 1970, Bierproduktion und Bierverbrauch in Deutschland vom 15. bis zum Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts. Diss Wi.-So. Fakultät, Göttingen.
  71. Huntemann Hans 1971, Das deutsche Braugewerbe vom Ausgang des Mittelalters bis zum Beginn der Industriealisierung. Hans Carl Nürnberg Verlag (Brauwelt).
  72. Hürrlimann M. 1976, Das Bier und die Sterne. Gesselschaft für die Bibliographie und die Geschichte des Brauwesens, Berlin.
    • The 6-pointed star of the brewers belonging to German cultural area is a medieval symbol of their esoteric secrets.
  73. Ivanof Rudolf 1997, Bier in Rußland. Geschichtlicher Überblick bis zum Sturz des Russischen Reiches 1917. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Jahrbuch 1997, 127:169.
    • Story centered on the sole industrial brewery. Little to nothing about the traditional brewing of braga or kwas.
  74. Jouffroy Christian 1998, La Bière à Metz et en Moselle. Saint Arnoul patron des brasseurs, G. Klopp éd.
  75. Jung Hermann 1981, Bier, Kunst und Brauchtum, F. English Verlag, Wiesbaden.
  76. Kemener Yann-Ber 1997, Bières et brasseurs de Bretagne. Tradition et renouveau, Skol Vreizh 34, Montroulez.
  77. Klein Georges 1939, L'industrie brassicole et le droit de fabrication sur la bière à Strasbourg, thèse sciences politiques et économiques, Université de Strasbourg (158 p.).
  78. Kobert R. 1913, Ueber den Kwasz die beste Erfrischungsgetränk Ruszlands. Halle. 82 p.
    • The text is full of data on kwass collected by Kobert from his Russian colleagues. Kobert is campaigning to introduce kwass brewing in Germany. Cited and used extensively by Adam Maurizio.
  79. Koch Christian, Täubrich Hans-Christian 1987, Bier in Nürnberg-Fürth, Brauereigeschichte in Franken. Hugendubel, Nürnberg.
  80. Kryzywinski K., Soltvedt E. C. 1988, A Medieval Brewery (1200-1450) at Bryggen, Bergen, in The Bryggen Papers, Supplement Serie 3, 1:68.
  81. Lascombes André 1979, Les fortunes de l'Ale: à propos de coventry, 1420-1555, in Pratiques & Discours alimentaires à la Renaissance, Actes du Colloque de Tours, 127:135.
    • Mutations in the late Middle Ages of the status of ale in the city of Coventry, based on the records and accounts of the city government. Decline of domestic medieval ale, challenged both by the Flemish hopped beers and the beers brewed by professional brewers (bere-Bruers) and brewsters (ale-Bruers).
  82. Lemaire Anne-Marie, Dits Jean-Louis, Bosseaux Hervé s.d., La Brasserie à Vapeur Pipaix.
    • The epic of one of the last steam-powered brewery in Europe.
  83. Lemoine Serge, Marchand Bernard 1999, Les peintres et la bière. Painters and Beer. Somogy Editions d'art. Paris.
    • Bilingual publication devoted to representations of beer and brewing in European art. Sumptuous reproductions and very accurate notices.
  84. Levine Hillel 1987, Acohol monopoly to protect non-commercial sector of eighteenth-century Poland. In Constructive Drinking 1987, Mary Douglas (ed), Cambridge University Press, Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 182:204.
  85. Marchant W. T. 1888, In Praise of Ale. Songs, ballads, epigrams & anecdotes relating to beer, malt, and hops, with some curious particulars concerning ale-wives and brewers drinking-clubs and customs, London.
  86. Mathias P. 1959, The Brewing Industry in England 1700-1830, Cambridge University Press.
  87. Marcin Nowak 2009, Przemysl browarniczy w Lublinie w XIX-XX wieku (Beer Industry in Lublin in the 19th-20th centuries), Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej (History of Material Culture Quarterly) 57, 449:459.
  88. McGovern et al. 1996, Neolithic resinated wine; Nature 381, 480–481.
    • Analysis of chemical traces of wine + pistachio + terebinth in few pottery discovered at Fijji Firuz Tepe, Iran (5400-5000 BC).
  89. Meert Raf 2022, Lambic. The Untamed Brussels Beer. Origin, Evolution and Future.
    • This book is a real gem, well documented and well argued, not a mere compilation of what has been written about Brussels' famous beer. Faro was created around 1721, lambic around 1783, according to the oldest surviving documents. At the time, these were luxury beers. The history of gueuze began in the 19th century and evolved through several stages that characterise this beer today: the blending of several different brews in the 19th century, then the birth of the profession of preparer. In the 20th century, gueuze served in barrels is also bottled, then refermented in champagne style. It became an emblematic Belgian beer, and went into decline in the 70s and 80s, before being 'reborn' with the craze for authentic beers, spontaneous fermentation and complex, tangy flavours. The author untangles the threads of this rich history and dismantles, with supporting evidence, the myths and legends that abound regarding lambic and gueuze. The peasants painted by Brueghel father and son drank beer, but it wasn't lambic!
  90. Monckton H.A. 1983, The Story of British Beer, Sheffield.
  91. Moulin Léo 1984, La bière, une invention médiévale, in Manger et Boire au Moyen-Age, Actes du Colloque de Nice T.1, 13:25.
    • The invention of the word "beer" to name a new kind of beer, and the evolution of existing grain-based fermented beverages (cervoise, brai, gruutbier, brémart, ale, godale, keute, etc.).
  92. Munier Bertrand 2001, L'activité brassicole en Lorraine. Pasteur au service de la bière, Alan Sutton ed.
  93. Nelson Max 2001, Beer in Greco-roman Antiquity. PhD. University of British Columbia.
  94. Nelson Max 2005, The Barbarian's Beverage. A History of Beer in Ancient Europe. Routledge N.Y.
  95. Nordland Odd 1969, Brewing and Beer Traditions in Norway. The Social Anthropological Background of the Brewing Industry. Norwegian Brewery Association/Norwegian Research Council for Science and Humanities/Norwegian Folk Museum (320 p.).
  96. Patroons Wilfried 1979, Bier, Antwerpen. Version wallone 1984 La route de la Bière, ed. Gamma.
  97. Pattinson Ronald 2009, Brown Beer, Mini Book Series Volume V, Amsterdam.
  98. Pattinson Ronald 2011, London! Brewing capital, Mini Book Series Volume XI, Amsterdam.
    • Also contains tables of measures of brewing batches (see Patterson 2009 Numbers!).
  99. Pattinson Ronald 2011, Decoction!, Mini Book Series Volume IV, Amsterdam.
    • Compiling main kinds of beer and brewers biographies in Europe.
  100. Pattinson Ronald 2012, Scotland! The truth about Scottish beer, Kilderkin, Amsterdam.
  101. Pattinson Ronald 2012, Porter!, Mega Book Series Volume I, Amsterdam.
    • History of Porter, a londonian beer since 1805. Not to be confused with the stout, a late coming kind of beer also born in England.
  102. Parízková Jana, Vlkova Martina 2011, Beer in the Czech Republic, in Liquid Bread. Beer and Brewing in Cross-Cultural Perspective ed. by Wulf Schiefenhövel & Hellen Macbeth, 101:109.
  103. Perrier-Robert Annie, Fontaine Charles 1996, La Belgique par la bière. La Bière par la Belgique, Editions Schortgen.
  104. Remarquable grâce aux collections de documents et objets réunis et publiés par Ch. Fontaine de Gheslain.
  105. Poll L. 1929, Das Klosterbrauwesens. Gesselschaft für die Bibliographie und die Geschichte des Brauwesens, Berlin.
    • The brewing tradition and the monasteries in Germany.
  106. Poll L. 1932, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Klosterbrauereien. Gesselschaft für die Bibliographie und die Geschichte des Brauwesens, Berlin.
    • Breweries, monasteries and abbeys in Middle-Age. Supplement to Poll 1929.
  107. Polomé E. C. 1996, Beer, runes and magic, Journal of Indo-European Studies 24, 99:105.
    • The magical functions of the beer alu (indo-european root *alu-Þ), explained by the mean by comparison with the runic alu inscribed on the bracteates (ancient coins) Bracteates at the time of the great germanic migrations (4-5st centuries) in Europe. On these inscriptions, alu is often linked to laukaR, the name of garlic used as magical protection.
  108. Queminel François 1737, Dissertation sur la bière, et réponse à la lettre anonyme sur le même sujet. Bibliotheca Cerevisia Volume 2. Lille 1987.
    • Former Juror-Alderman and physician in its town Valenciennes, the author replies to Crendal (see Crendal 1734) on the issue of the alleged corrupted beer. A juror alderman was responsible for the control of the beer sold in pubs and taverns inside the city, and sometimes in the close outskirts of the town.
  109. Reddington W., A Practical Treatise on Brewing, 2nd edn, Richardson
  110. Reiber Ferdinand 1882, Etudes Gambrinales. Histoire et archéologie de la bière et principalement de la bière à Strasbourg, Berger-Levrault et Cie, Nancy.
  111. Renfrow Cindy 1995, A Sip through Time, a collection of old brewing recipes.
    • Recipes of beers, braggot, hydromel, wines, liquors, cordiaux, …
  112. Reynaud Montlosier François De 1803, Le Peuple anglais Bouffi d'Orgueil, de Bière et de Thé, jugé au Tribunal de la Raison, Paris.
    • The Anglo-French war rages in 1800's. Napoleon decided the maritime blockade of England. This political pamphlet illustrates the collective imaginary emerging in the late 18th century : beer and tea favored by English, wine and coffee by French.
  113. Ricketts Bob 2005, Gone for a Burton. Memoirs from a Great British Heritage, Pen Press Pub., London.
  114. Rojo-Guerra, Garrido-Pena et als 2006, Beer and Bell Beakers: Drinking Rituals in Copper Age Inner Iberia, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 72 243-265.
  115. Sambrook Pamela 1996, Country house brewing in England 1500-1900, Hambledon.
  116. Sambucy de Sorgue André de 1929, La Bière, Sa Fabrication, Son Action Physiologique, Thèse pour le doctorat en médecine, Université de Toulouse.
  117. Santebergen R. van 1949, Les bons métiers des meuniers, des boulangers et des brasseurs de la cité de Liège, Faculté de Philosophie et de Lettres, Liège.
  118. Santebergen R. van 1952, Chartres et Privilèges des XXIII métiers de la Cité de Liège, fascicule XI : les Brasseurs, Commission communale d'histoire, Liège.
  119. Sépul René, Olsson Cici 2005, Brasseurs d'ici. Histoire de la bière en Wallonie et à Bruxelles. Bruxelles.
  120. Sherratt Andrew 1987, Cups that cheered. The Introduction of Alcohol to Prehistoric Europe. In Waldren & Kennard (eds) Bell Beakers of the Western Mediterrranan. Definition, Interpretation, Theory and New Site Data. The Oxford International Conference 1986, 81-114.
  121. Sherratt Andrew 1997, Economy and Society in Prehistoric Europe: Changing Perspectives, Princeton University Press.
  122. Siebert Anne Viola 1998, … es fehlt nigendwo in der Welt an dergleichen, in Gerstensaft und Hirsebier, 5000 Jarhe Biergenuß, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland Helft 20, Schloßmuseum Jever Heflt 19, Oldenburg, 111:135.
    • Including the brewing facilities in Regensburg and Vindolanda Plans (pp. 123-125).
  123. Schranka E.-M. 1886, Ein Buch vom Bier, Frankfurt.
  124. Simonsson Sten 1935, Om forna tiders mältning och brygd i Sverige. Almquist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A.-B., Uppsala.
    • Malting and brewing in Sweden since the 15st century.
  125. Späth Gino 1952, Geschichte des Braugewerbes im Kanton Luzern, Dissertation Universität Zürich.
  126. Späth Gino 1995, Die italienische Brauereigeschichte. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Jahrbuch 1995, 157:214.
    • Review of the literature about the Italian breveries published in 1979 by Lorenzo Vanossi.
  127. Stahleder Helmuth s.d., Bierbrauer und ihre Braustätten. Ein Beitrag zur Gewerbetopographie Münchens im Mittelalter, Neustadt/Aisch.
    • Localization of brewers and beer taverns in the city of Munich, between the mid-14th and late 16th century, street by street, house by house, based on the municipal land registers.
  128. Stanek Josef 1984, Blaho slavený sládek. Kapitoly z dejin piva, Astra, Praha.
    • History of beer in Central Europe, especially in Bohemia and the former Czechoslovakia.
  129. Stika Hans-Peter 1996, Traces of a Possible Celtic Brewery in Eberdingen-Hochdorf, Kreis Ludwigsburg, southwest Germany, Vegetal History and Archaeobotany 5, 81:88.
  130. Stika Hans-Peter 1996, Keltisches Bier aus Hochdorf, Schriften des Keltenmuseums Hochdorf/Enz 1, 64:75.
  131. Stika Hans-Peter 1998, Prähistorische Biere: Archäobotanische Funde und Experimente zum Nachbrauen, in Gerstensaft und Hirsebier, 5000 Jarhe Biergenuß, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland Helft 20, Schloßmuseum Jever Heflt 19, Oldenburg, 39:47.
  132. Stika Hans-Peter 2011, Beer in Prehistoric Europe, in Liquid Bread. Beer and Brewing in Cross-Cultural Perspective ed. by Wulf Schiefenhövel & Hellen Macbeth, 55:62.
    • Summary of old and recent discoveries known to the date of publishing : Eberdingen-Hochdorf (residues of malt), and Grossprüfing (Bavaria).
  133. Stika Hans-Peter 2011, Early Iron Age and Late Mediaeval malt finds from Germany—attempts at reconstruction of early Celtic brewing and the taste of Celtic beer, Archaeological and Anthropological Science 3, 41:48.
  134. Szczesniak Grégoire 1996, Brasseurs et bières du Nord, Laura Editions.
  135. Taaning Tage 1942, Øl. Træk af øllets historie og af historien om øllet, med særligt henblik paa den danske indsats. Henry Clausens Forlag, København.
    • History of beer and brewery, especially in Denmark.
  136. Thöne Karl, Bugnon André 1987, La Bière Suisse, Fédération suisse des cafetiers, restaurateurs et hôteliers, Zurich.
  137. Thunaeus O. W. 1968-70, Ölets historia i Sverige, 2 Volumes, Stockholm.
  138. Tourtebatte Franck 2007, La Marne, pays de la bière, Société archéologique champenoise, Reims.
  139. Tresserras Juan 1998, La cerveza prehistorica : Investigaciones arqueobotanicas y expérimentales, dans Maya, Cuesta & Lopez Cachero eds., Geno, un poblado del Bronce Final en el Bajo Segre (Lleida), Publicacions Universitat de Barcelona.
  140. Tzedakis Yannis, Martlew Holley 1999, Minoans and Mycenaeans flavours of their time, Athens. Greek Ministry of Culture. National Archaeological Museum.
  141. Unger Richard W. 1992, Technical change in the Brewing Industry in Germany, The Low Countries, and England in the Late Middle Ages, The Journal of European Economic History 21(2).
  142. Unger Richard W. 2001, A History of Brewing in Holland 900-1900, Brill, Leiden.
    • Outstanding history of beer and brewing in Holland. The medieval period is well documented, especially the emergence in the 12th century of towns specialising in large-scale brewing and export of beer, first in the north of the German states (Hamburg, Lübeck, Bremen, ...), then in the Netherlands (Dortrecht, Antwerp, Haarlem, Ghent, Bruges, ...) and finally in Brabant, the Ardennes and along the Rhine.
  143. Unger Richard W. 2004, Beer in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. University of Pennsylvania Press.
    • Again, a remarkable historical synthesis of brewing developments for Northern Europe. The hop "revolution" and its socio-economic impact are somewhat overestimated. Complement with Christine von Blankenburg's study (2001) on the Hanseatic League and the beer trade.
  144. Urion Edmond, Eyer Frédéric 1968, La bière : Art et Tradition, ISTRA éd. Strasbourg.
  145. Vaisey J. 1960, The Brewing Industry, 1886-1951: An Economic Study, Sir Isaac Pitman, London.
  146. Van Balberghe J. 1845, De Mechelse Bierhandel, Antwerpen
  147. Vencl S. 1991, The Archaeology of Thirst, Journal of European Archaeology 2, 299:326.
  148. Verberg Susan, The Rise and Fall of Gruit, The Brewery History Society, Brewery History (2018) 174, 46-78.
    • A comprehensive historical study of medieval gruit based on mainly Dutch sources. The 3 technical assumptions are well summarised: 1) gruit = aromatics 2) gruit = liquid or semi-solid malt concentrate 3) gruit = amylolytic ferment made with 4 plants ( laurel berries, bog myrtle, rosemary, laser-wort) and pine resin.  See also her experiments to test hypothesis 2 => medievalmeadandbeer.
  149. Vermeylen Joseph 1962, Traité de la fabrication du malt et de la bière, Gand.
  150. Voluer Philippe 1991, Bières de Meuse et de Lorraine, Editions de l'Est.
  151. Voluer Philippe 1997, La bière en Ardenne et en Champagne, Editions Terres Ardennaises.
  152. Voluer Philippe 1997, Stenay, le musée européen de la Bière, Citedis Editions.
  153. Voluer Philippe 2005, La bière en Lorraine à l'époque des Lumières. L'exemple de Nancy et de Stenay, Editions Serpenoise.
  154. Voluer Philippe 2008, Le grand livre de la bière en Alsace, Editions Place Stanislas, Nancy.
  155. Voluer Philippe 2008, Le grand livre de la bière en Lorraine, Editions Place Stanislas, Nancy.
  156. Vossen Albert 1954, Champagne – Gueuze, Revue Fermentatio n° 1.
  157. Wagner Christoph 1984, Das große Buch vom Bier. Eine Kulturgeschichte der österreichischen Bierbraukunst. Verlag Christian Brandstätter, Wien - München.
  158. Wartke Ralf-B 1998, Bier in den altvorderasiatischen Hochkulturen, in Gerstensaft und Hirsebier, 5000 Jarhe Biergenuß, Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland Helft 20, Schloßmuseum Jever Heflt 19, Oldenburg, 91:109.
  159. Weber France 1900, Essai historique sur la brasserie française. Soissons (534 p.).
  160. Weinhold Rudolf 1998. Baking, Brewing, and Fermenting of the grape-must. Historical Proofs of their connections. In Food Conservation. Ethnological Studies, ed. Riddervold A., Ropeid A., 73-80. Department of Ethnology of the University of Oslo.
    • Study of the finnish kuurna, a wooden trough used to clarify the beer wort before fermentation.
  161. Wiegelmann G. 1976, Bier im germanischen Bereich. In: Heinrich Beck et al. (eds), Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, Bake-Billigkeit, 2, 533:537.
    • In particular the borrowing in Finnish, Hungarian and old-Prussian languages of the Indo-European root *maltaz (mealt, malz, malt).
  162. Wilck Wilhelm 1914, Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des schweizerische Braugewerbes (1870-1912), Inaugural-Dissertation Freiburg.
  163. Wilson C.A., Food and drink in Britain: from the Stone Age to recent times, Constable, London, 1973 (1991 reprint).
  164. Wilson R.G. 1993, The introduction of lager in late Victorian Britain, in A Special Brew: Essays in Honour of Kristof Glamann, Thomas Riis (ed), Odense University Press.
  165. Wykes Alan 1979, Ale and hearthy. Gleanings from the history of brews and brewing, Jupiter books, London.
    • Historical sources, anecdotes and illustrations, some rare about the history of british ale.
  166. Yntema R. J. 1992, The brewing industry in Holland 1300-1800; a study in industrial developement, University of Chicago.
  167. Zlataroff As. 1922-23, Genuszmittel Bulgariens. Jahrbücher d. Univers Sofia Bd. 19.
    • The brewing of bosa, a traditional bulgarian beer. Quoted by Maurizio 1970 p. 237 n. 1.



A few industrial breweries monographies and brewer dynasties.

We cannot claim to list every monographs on breweries or biographies about brewers families, as they abound since de 19th century. Below, a mere representative sample.


  1. (La) Brasserie de Montmorillon. Bières de Montmorillon 1988. Club photo de Saulgé, Ecomusée du Montmorillonnais, Société archéologique et historique du Montmorillonnais, Musée de Montmorillon.
    • The Montmorillon brewery (France): 1843-1963.
  2. Brasserie Tourtel de Tantonville (livret s.d. vers 1890).
    • Louis Pasteur installed a laboratory in the Tantonville brewery to carry out his work on beer. This Lorraine brewery (Meurthe-et-Moselle) is also a pioneer in the operation of railways as a mode of carrying beer by ice-refrigerated wagons to the large urban markets resulting from the industrial revolution.
  3. Den Store tørst, s. d. Tuborg.
    • The great thirst according to Tuborg: 13 short stories to illustrate the need for Tuborg beer around the world! Funny.
  4. Guinness Patrick 2008, Arthur's Round. The Life and Times of Brewing Legend Arthur Guinness, London.
  5. Hürlimann Martin 1984, Das Buch vom Bier, Zürich.
    • History of the richly illustrated Swiss beer and brewery Hürlimann.
  6. Ellis Aytoun s.d., Yorshire Magnet. The Story of John Smith's Tadcaster Brewery, John Smith, North Yorkshire.
  7. Guinness 1932, Le Guinness, son brassage, ses propriétés, ses qualités, Arthur Guinness, Son & Co Ltd, Dublin.
    • The bulk of literature published by or for Guinness breweries is impressive and multilingual.
  8. Hurtford Janes 1963, The Red Barrel. A history of Watney Mann, John Murray ed., London.
  9. Keir David 1951, The Younger Centuries. The Story of William Younger & Co. Ltd. 1749 to 1949, Edinburgh.
  10. Lackey Clifford 1985, Quality pays … The story of Joshua Tetley & Son, Joshua Tetley & son Ltd., Berkshire.
  11. Lung Danièle 1970, Jean Moreau brasseur, Vézelize, St Nicolas-de-Port, Musée Français de la Brasserie.
    • History of the Vézelize brewery from the family archives (France).
  12. McMaster Charles 1984, Alloa Ale. A History of the Brewing Industry in Alloa, Alloa Brewery Co. Ldt, Edinburgh.
  13. Ó Drisceoil Diarmuid, Ó Drisceoil Donal 1997, The Murphy's Story. The History of Lady's Well Brewery, Cork, Murphy Brewery Ldt, Ireland.
  14. Sibley Brian 1985, The Book of Guinness Advertising. Guinness Superlatives Ldt. London.
    • My Goodness, my Guinness … you know ?
  15. Ward David, Tattersall-Walker George s.d., John Smith and his Tadcaster brewery. John Smith, North Yorkshire.
  16. Whitbread Library 1948, The Brewer's Art. Whitbread & Co. Ldt, London.
  17. Whitbread Library 1948, Whitbread Craftsmen. Whitbread & Co. Ldt, London.
  18. Whitbread Library 1951, Whitbread's Brewery. Whitbread & Co. Ldt, London.
  19. Whitbread Library 1953, Word for Word. An Encyclopaedia of Beer. Whitbread & Co. Ldt, London.
  20. Whitbread Library 1978, Whitbread's Entire. Whitbread & Co. Ldt, London.


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22/05/2020  Christian Berger