Brewing using the acidic amylolysis (Brewing Path n° 5)
The saccharification by acid amylolysis was practiced all over the world for millennia. In different areas of the planet, it has been gradually marginalized by competing techniques (malting, amylolytic ferments). But this method of brewing continues nowadays in Eastern Europe, parts of Africa and Asia, and among the Amerindians of the Amazon, to cite a few regions.
- Dlusskaya Elena, Jänsch André, Schwab Clarissa, Gänzle Michael G. 2008, Microbial and chemical analysis of a kvass fermentation, European food research & technology 227(1), 261:266.
- Kvass is a traditional Russian beer. It is brewed with 2 methods: malted grains of rye and barley, or acid hydrolysis of stale rye breads. Sugar is added to sustain the alcoholic fermentation, in the form of honey or dried fruits.
- Dugan F. M. 2009, Dregs of Our Forgotten Ancestors. Fermentative Microorganisms in the Prehistory of Europe, the Steppes, and Indo-Iranian Asia and Their Contemporary Use in Traditional and Probiotic Beverages. FUNGI 2.
- Gotcheva Velitchka, Pandiella Severino S., Angelov Angel, Roshkova Zlatka, Webb Collin 2001, Monitoring the fermentation of the traditional Bulgarian beverage boza, International Journal of Food Science and Technology 36, 129:134.
- Boza, a beer made from raw wheat and flour, uses lactobacilli for saccharification and yeasts for fermentation. It is related to the family of traditional beers from Central Europe and the Balkans, brewed by saccharification in an acid medium. We find in this family the Kenyan busaa (millet, sorghum, corn), the busaa (millet / rice) from the Tartars and Turkestan, or the Egyptian bouza when it is not based on malt, to retain only these restricted areas in Europe, Asia, and Africa. The acidic brewing method is much more spread throughout the world.
- Hancioglu Ömre, Karapinar Mehmet 1997, Microflora of Boza, a traditional fermented Turkish beverage, International Journal of Food Science and Technology 35, 271:274.
- The Turkish boza is a beer made from raw wheat, maize or rice, alone or mixed. The saccharification of the cooked porridge involves lactobacilli for the starch saccharification and yeasts for the alcoholic fermentation. This beer is related to the family of traditional beers from Central Europe and the Balkans, brewed by saccharification in an acid medium.
- Lisdiyanti Pupita, Katsura Kazushige, Potacharoen Wanchern, Navarrol Richard, Yamada Yuzo, Uchimura Tai, Komagata Kazuo 2003, Diversity of Acetic Bacteria Isolated from South-east Asian Sources. In The First International Symposium and Workshop on “Insight into the World of Indigenous Fermented Foods for Technology Development and Food Safety” held in Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, August 2003, O-1.
- 331 strains of Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter and Kozakia analyzed from fermented food sources in Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines. Some of them are extracted and isolated from traditional beers and others fermented beverages like palm-wines.
- Wang J., Chen X., Liu W., Yang M., Airidengcaicike, Zang H. 2008, Identification of Lactobacillusfrom koumiss by conventional and molecular methods, European Food Research and Technology 227, 1555:1561.
- Yamada Yuzo 2003, Taxonomy of Acetic Acid Bacteria Utilized for vinegar Fermentation. In The First International Symposium and Workshop on “Insight into the World of Indigenous Fermented Foods for Technology Development and Food Safety” held in Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, August 2003, I-8.
- Taxonomy of Acetobacter and its use in acidic fermentations. Note that the sake dregs are used as a basis for the traditional manufacture of sushi vinegar.
The 6 Brewing Paths (or Brewing Technologies)
Click one of the 6 brewing paths below or navigate through the left menu.
For the scientific overall studies on beer, consult "Science and technology".