Pakistan, India, Bengal


  1. Achaya KT. 1991, Alcoholic fermentation and its products in ancient India. Indian Journal of History Science 26(2). In ResearchGate
  2. Arora R. K. 1977, Job's-tears (Coix lacryma-jobi) a minor Food and and Fooder Crop of Northeastern India, Economic Botany 31, 358:366.
    • The Garo tribe, on the Burmese border (Myanmar), brews its traditional beer with the seeds of Coix lacrima-jobi.
  3. Arthur John 1974, The Hill of flutes: Life, love, and poetry in tribal India, a portrait of the Santals. London.
    • Rice beer is ubiquitous in social life and myths of this tribe in the state of Bihar (North-Eastern India).
  4. Asboe Walter 1933, Social Functions in Lahul, Kangra District, Panjab, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 63, 189:205.
  5. Batra Lekh, Millner Patricia 1974, Some Asian fermented foods and beverages, and associated fungi. Mycologia Vol. 66, No. 6, 942-950.
  6. Botto Carmen 1995, L'alimentation dans le bouddhisme ancien. In Asie III, Savourer, Goûter, Flora Blanchon (ed.), Presses de l'Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 53:61.
  7. Ch'en Kenneth K. S. 1947, A Study of The Svagata Story in The Divyavadana in Its Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan, and Chinese Versions, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 9,  207-314.  
  8. Crowley Mike 1996, When Gods Drank Urine, A Tibetan myth may help solve the riddle of soma, sacred drug of ancient India, Fortean Studies 3.
    • The bold hypotheses are based on the work of Wasson (1968) and Ardussi (1977). But the method is not conclusive: juxtaposition of texts and traditions often separated by thousands of years in history.
  9. Dipak Bhattacharya 1997, The Paippalada-Samhita of the Atharva-veda, vol. 1 (Calcutta: The Asiatic Society).
  10. Falk Harry 1989, "Soma I and II".  Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies Vol. 52 No. 1, 77-90.
    • The nature of Soma, sacred beverage in the Rig-Veda.
  11. Hajicek-Dobberstein S. 1995, Soma siddhas and alchemical enlightenment: psychedelic mushrooms in Buddhist tradition, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 48, 99-118.
  12. Horner I. B. 1940, Book of the Discipline 2.382-386.
  13. Houben J.E.M. 2003, The Soma/Haoma-cult in early Vedism and Zoroastrism, Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies vol. 9.
  14. Huber Ed. 1906, Etudes de littérature bouddhique, BEFEO 6.
  15. Ingalls Daniels 1971, Remarks on Mr. Wasson's Soma. JAOS 91-2.
  16. Kautilya's Arthashastra, traduit en anglais par R. Shamasastry (1915).
  17. Khanna Vikramaditya S. 2005, The Economic History of the Corporate Form in Ancient India.
  18. Kolhatkar, Madhavi Bhaskar 1985, Sura as medicine in the Sautramani, Bulletin of the Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute44, 75–78.
  19. Kolhatkar, Madhavi Bhaskar 1987, The method of preparing Sura according to the Vedic texts, Bulletin of the Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute 46, 41–45.
  20. Kolhatkar Madhavi Bhaskar 1999, Sura: The Liquor and the Vedic Sacrifice, Reconstructing Indian History and Culture, no 18. New Delhi.
    • The study of the role and preparation of Sura beer in the Sautramani, a very complex Vedic ritual, according to the ancient Brahmanical texts (sutras). Based on a simple preparation of beer, the author suggests that one of the two forms ot that ritual (namely the Caraka) is the most archaic one. The study details the making of the beer, of the ingredients and its many complex brewing operations, some with a meaning and a usage purely religious.
  21. Korom Frank 1999, 'To be happy': Ritual, play, leisure in the Bengali Dharmaraj puja, International Journal of Hindu Studies 3(2), 113:164.
  22. Mahdihassan S. 1981, Parisrut the earliest distilled Liquor of Vedic Times or of about 1500 BC. Indian Journal of History of Science 16(2), 223-229.
    • The nature of the Parisrut (ingredient, fermented wort), and the control of the distillation process in so ancient times, are subjects to debate among historians.
  23. Mahdihassan S. 1984, SOMA as Energizer-cum-Euphoriant, versus SURA, an intoxicant. Ancient Science of Life vol. III-3, 161-168.
  24. Malamoud Charles 1991, Le soma et sa contrepartie. Remarques sur les stupéfiants dans les rites de l'Inde ancienne. In Le Ferment Divin, D. Fournier et S. D'Onofrio (éd.), pp 19-34.
  25. Martel Gabrielle 1965, La culture du riz chez les Santals du Bengale, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 52(2), 313:358.
  26. Needham Rodney 1958, A Structural Analysis of Purum Society, American Anthropologist 60 (1), 75:101.
    • The Purum peoples live at the Indo-Burmese border. Rice beer plays a central role in their social life, as in that of Sandals and other peoples of the region.
  27. Oort Marianne S. 2002, Sura in the Paippalada Samhita of the Atharvaveda. Journal of the American Oriental Society 122(2), 355-360.
  28. Piovano Irma 1995, Les aliments et les boissons dans le Ramayana. In Asie III, Savourer, Goûter, Flora Blanchon (ed.), Presses de l'Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 41:51.
  29. Prakash Om 1961, Food and Drinks in Ancient India (from earliest times to c.1200 A.D.), Munshi Ram Manohar Lal,Delhi.
  30. Raman Regmi Delhi 1940, The control of liquor in ancient India, New Review n° 5, Calcutta
  31. Ravi Varma 1950, Alcoholism in Ayurveda, Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 11 : 484-491.
  32. Ray J. C. 1906, On the Hindu Methods of Manufacturing Spirits from Rice, and its Scientific Explanation. Journal & Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal vol. II-4, 129-142.
    • Distillation first involves to brew a rice beer. The British has described in the late 19th century the brewing methods of the Indian subcontinent, here in Bengal, including the synchronous triggering of the amylolysis-fermentation processes. This historic document seeks to elucidate these biochemical mechanisms, at a time when Western science is just beginning to elucidate the enzymatic reactions.
  33. Roy Mira 1997, Fermentation technology, InHistory of Technology of India, New Delhi: The Indian National Science Academy, pp. 437-447.
  34. Sharma H. K., Tripathi B. M., Pelto P. J. 2010, The Evolution of Alcohol Use in India". AIDS Behavior 14, 8-17.
    • A worth reading historical survey.
  35. Stern Theodore 1957,Resin-Glazed Pottery in the Chin Hills, Burma, American Anthropologist 59(4), 711:712.
    • A note of 1954 on the manufacture of jars for beer and water in the village of Lente (West Burma).
  36. Strabon, Geographie, Livre XV. Chap. 1 § 35-36 (Pataliputra), § 53-56 (boissons et nourriture des Indiens).
  37. Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Patimokkha Training Rules Translated and Explained.
  38. Wasson R. Gordon 1968, Soma : Divine mushroom of immortality.
  39. Wasson R. Gordon 1971, The Soma of the Rig Veda: What Was It? Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 91, No. 2, 169-187.
  40. Rahurkar V. G. 1974, The Use and Control of Liquor in Ancient India. Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal 12 1-2, 286-300.



Ladakh, Tibet, Nepal, Buthan, Sikkim


  1. Ardussi J. A. 1977, Brewing and Drinking the Beer of Enlightenment in Tibetan Buddhism: the Doha Tradition in Tibet, Journal of the American Oriental Society 97(2), 115:124.
  2. Bon-drong-pa 1993. The Dispute Between Tea and Chang. Trans. by A. Fedotov and Acharya Sangya T. Naga. Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala.
  3. Brauen M. 1980, Feste in Ladakh (Graz, Akademische Druck-u. Verlaganstalt).
  4. Dollfus Pascale 1985, Les fastes de la modestie : Chang, la bière d'alliance, L'Univers du vivant 5, 73-79.
    • Processes of brewing barley beer in Ladakh, with identification of technical terms. Two different methods, concurrent or joint in practice, are used to brew the chang-beer : the malting (glum = malt) and the making of amylolytic ferments (phabs). The author then describes the social events for which chang plays an important role : agricultural calendar, marriage, village festivals, hospitality to travelers and guests, negotiations between families, and so on. (republished in Cahiers de Sociologie Economique et Culturelle, Ethnopsychologie 12 (1989), 81:89).
  5. Dollfus Pascale 1991, Peintures tibétaines de la vie de Mi-la-ras-pa, Arts asiatiques 46, 50:71.
  6. Dollfus Pascale 1999, Phu mkhar rdzong, un lieu de pèlerinage au Ladakh, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 86, 33:64.
  7. Dollfus Pascale 2003, The Seven Rongtsan Brothers in Ladakh, Étudesmongoles et sibériennes, centrasiatiques et tibétaines [En ligne], 376-406. 
  8. Jest Corneille 1975. Dolpo. Communautés de langue tibétaine du Népal. CNRS, Paris.
    • C. Jest was a pioneer ethnologist in the study of Dolpo, highlanders living on the border between Nepal and Tibet. His descriptions of the agricultural cycle, food preparation, and brewing of barley beer are accurate and valuable.
  9. Kunwor R. R. 1984, Nepalese society: Liquor and culture, Ancient Nepal (J. Dept Archaeology) 81, 1:31.
  10. Macdonald A. W. 1967, Matériaux pour l'Etude de la Littérature Populaire Tibétaine vol. I, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.
    • Translation of the "twenty-five tales of the Vetala", whose first versions back to the 12th century.
  11. Mangeot Catherine 1996, L'orge au Ladakh, transformation et traitement culinaire. In Cuisines, Reflets des Sociétés, Marie Claire Bataille-Benguigui & Françoise Cousin, 127:144.
    • The beer-Chang of barley. Details on the preparation of amylolytic ferment (phaps). See Pascale Dolfus 1975.
  12. March Kathryn S. 1987, Hospitality, Women, and the Efficacity of Beer, Food and Foodways 1, 351:387.
    • The barley beer brewed by women ensures and strengthens social bonds among Tamang and Sherpa peoples of Nepal. In appendix, the transcript of a long "Song of Ferment Beer" sung by a shyeponpo (a bard) in September 1976.
  13. Metz John 1989, A Framework for Classifying Production Types of Nepal, Human Ecology 17(2), 147:176.
    • The diversity of crops and legumes according to the nepalese geographical constraints: barley, wheat, millet, finger millet, rice, corn, beans. All these grains serve or have served in past to make beer in Nepal.
  14. Miller Robert and Beatrice 1956, On Two Bhutanese New Year's Celebrations, American Anthropologist 58(1), 179:183.
  15. Obadia Lionel 204, « No King, No drink, Power to the People », Socio-anthropologie 15 [En ligne]
  16. Ortner Sherry B. 1973,Sherpa Purity, American Anthropologist 75(1), 49:63.
  17. Sagant Philippe 1973, Les travaux et les jours dans un village du Népal oriental, Objets et Mondes 13(4), 247:272.
  18. Sprigg R. K. 1983,Hooker's Expenses in Sikkim: An Early Lepcha Text, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 46(2), 305:325.
    • The botanist Joseph Hooker explores Sikkim from 1847 to 1851. This is the diary of his travel expenses. Among them, a lot of Murwa-beer for him and his Lepcha guide drunk at all steps on their travel.
  19. Steinmann Brigitte 1987, La cérémonie funéraire chez les Tamang de l'Est, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 76, 217:280.
  20. Tamang Jyoti Prakash, Thapa S., Tamang N., Rai B. 1996, Indigeneous Fermented foods beverages of Darjeeling Hills and Sikkim: process and product characterization, Journal of Hill Research 9(2), 401:411.
  21. Tamang Jyoti Prakash 2003, Indigeneous Fermented foods of the Himalayas: Microbiology and Food Safety. In The First International Symposium and Workshop on “Insight into the World of Indigenous Fermented Foods for Technology Development and Food Safety” held in Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, August 2003, I-13.
    • The ethnic groups from India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet are used to brew a great variety of beers made ??from millet, rice, and corn. Each time, molds, yeasts and lactic acid bacteria contribute to the saccharification, and the alcoholic or lactic fermentation.
  22. Toffin Gérard 1977, Pyangon, une communauté néwar de la vallée de Kathmandou; la vie matérielle, Cahier Népalais.
  23. Toffin Gérard 1978, L'Organisation sociale et religieuse d'une communauté newar (Népal), L'Homme 18(1-2), 109:134.
  24. Toffin Gérard 1981, L'Organisation sociale des Pahari (ou Pahi), population du Centre Népal, L'Homme 21(2), 39:68.
  25. Toffin Gérard 1987, La fabrication de la bière chez deux ethnies tibéto-birmanes du Népal : les Tamang et les Néwar. In De la voûte céleste au terroir, du jardin au foyer, B. Koechlin, F. Sigaut, J. Thomas, G. Toffin (eds), 455:468.
    • Inventory of many beers, technical processes, and worthy notations of some ratios of brewing ingredients.
  26. Voyages dans les Marches Tibétaines 1989, Catalogue d'exposition du Musée de l'Homme (P. Dolfus, C. Jemmet), Paris.
    • Pictures of brewing jars and beer pots in the museum collections. Mission Guibaut- Liotard 1936.
  27. Wilkes H. G. 1968, Interesting Beverages of the Eastern Himalayas, Economic Botany 22(4), 347:353.
    • Tea and beer-chang of Tibetans, Lepchas, Bhutanese, and Gurkhas on the border between Tibet, Bhutan and Sikkim.


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22/05/2020  Christian Berger