China.

 
  1. Benn James A. 2004, Buddhism, Alcohol, and Tea in Medieval China. In "Of Tripod and Palate, Food, Politics, and Religion in Traditional China" Sterckx Roel (ed.), 213:236.
  2. Chang K. C. 1977, Ancient China, In Food in Chinese Culture: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives, K. C. Chang (ed), 23:52.
  3. Chen T. C., Tao M., Cheng G. 1999, Perspectives On Alcoholic Beverages In China, In Asian Foods: Science And Technology, Ed. C.Y.W. Ang, K. S. Liu, And Y.-W. Huang, 383:408.
  4. Cheng Wen-Chien 2005, Drunken Village Elder or Scholar-Recluse? The Ox-Rider and Its Meanings in Song Paintings of "Returning Home Drunk", Artibus Asiae 65(2), 309:357.
  5. Chia Ssu-hsieh, Huang Tzu-ch'ing, Chao Yun-ts'ung, Davis T. 1945, The Preparation of Ferments and Wines, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Society 9(1), 24:44.
    • Partial translation of the Qimin Yaoshu (Main techniques for the wealth of the people) written by Jia Sixie between 533 and 544. This basic text has devoted an entire chapter to the technology of amylolytic ferments for brewing various kinds of rice beers, or millet beers, or barley beers. + Yang Lien - sheng 1946, Corrigenda to HJAS 9.24-38, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 9 (2), p. 186.
  6. Chiu Che Bing 1995, La table impériale sous la dynastie Qing, In Asie III, In Savourer, Goûter, Flora Blanchon (ed.), Presses de l'Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 355:369.
  7. Childs-Johnson E. 1988, The jue and its ceremonial use in the ancestral cult of China, Artibus Asiae 48, 175:196.
  8. Ching Ho Man 1999, Brewery Museum in Qungdao, China. A Historical Place Revitalization. Thesis University of Hong Kong.
  9. Cook Constance A. 1997, Wealth and the Western Zhou, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 60(2), 253:294.
  10. Cook Constance A. 2004, Moonshine and Millet: Feasting and Purification Rituals in Ancient China. In "Of Tripod and Palate, Food, Politics, and Religion in Traditional China" Sterckx Roel (ed.), 9:33.
  11. Debaine-Francfort Corinne 2007-2008, Boissons en Chine ancienne, Cahier des thèmes transversaux ArScAn (vol. IX) 2007 – 2008, UMR 7041 Archéologies et Sciences de l’Antiquité, Nanterre, France, 405:417.
  12. Fang X. 1989, Zailun woguo qu nie niangjiu de qiyuan yu fazhan (Reexamination of the origin and development of fermenting agents in Chinese wine fermentation), in Zhongguo Jiu Wenhua. (Chinese wine culture): 3-31, ed. Y. Li. Beijing: China Food.
  13. Kleeman Terry F. 2004, Feasting Without the Victuals: The Evolution of the Daoist Communal Kitchen. In "Of Tripod and Palate, Food, Politics, and Religion in Traditional China" Sterckx Roel (ed.), 140:162.
  14. Michael Fishlen 1994, Wine, Poetry and History: Du Mu's "Pouring Alone in the Prefectural Residence", T'oung Pao Second Series 80 Fasc. 4/5, 260:297.
  15. Freeman Michael 1977. Sung. In Food in Chinese Culture. Anthropological and Historical Perspectives, ed. Chang, K. C., 141-192. Yale University Press.
  16. Fung C. 2000, The Drinks Are on Us: Ritual, Social Status, and Practice in Dawenkou Burials, North China, Journal of East Asian Archaeology 2(1/2): 67-92.
  17. Guo S. Q. 1986, Luelun Yin Dai de zhi jiu ye (Discussion of the wine industry during the Shang dynasty). Zhongyuan Wenwu (Cultural Relics of the Central Plain) 3: 94-95.
  18. Hanai Shiro 2003, Structural Characteristics and Modernization of alcoholic Beverage Production in Japan and China. In Japanese civilization in the Modern World XVII Alcoholic Beverages, Senri Ethnological Studies 64, Tadao Umesao, Shuji Yoshida, Paul Schalow (eds), 17:33.
  19. Holi Paavo 1995, Die Geschichte der Germania-Brauerei in Qingdao (Tsingtau), China, 1903 bis 1914. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Jahrbuch 1995, 323:330.
    • Following the example of the English in Shanghai, the German colony installed its brewery on the concession ceded for 99 years by the Chinese government. The consortium is Anglo-German.
  20. Huang Hsing-Tsung 2000, Fermentation and Food Science, in Science and Civilisation in China (J. Needham) Vol. 6 : Biology abd Biological Technology (Part V).
    • One of the most comprehensive explanations in Western language of Chinese brewing technologies since 3000 years, with an overview of the various kinds of traditional beers and their technical evolution. It fulfills a quarter (pp 149-291) of a 600-page volume also devoted to other fermented foods (soy, tea, vegetables). Huang conforms to the jiu = "wine" translation while explaining everye technical details of making jiu which hangs it up at the brewery (not the wine making). Also valuable critical discussions about the studies of Japanese researchers whose works are not accessible in Western languages. An extensive bibliography. Essential basic work to understand the history and the brewing technology of fermented drinks in China.
  21. Huang Hsing-Tsung 2010, The Origin of Alcoholic Fermentation in China, in Wine and Chinese Culture (Peter Kupfer ed.), 41:55.
  22. Jiacheng Xiao 1995, "China", in International handbook on alcohol and culture , D. B. Health (ed), 42:50.
  23. Laing Ellen Johnston 1974, Neo-Taoism and the "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove" in Chinese Painting, Artibus Asiae 36(1/2), 5:54.
  24. Lévi Jean 1983, L'abstinence des céréales chez les taoïstes, Études chinoises, n° 1, 3-47.
  25. Li J. M. 1984, Dawenkou muzang chutu de jiu qi (Wine vessels excavated from burials at Dawenkou). Kaogu Yu Wenwu (Archaeology and Cultural Relics) 6 : 64-68.
  26. Li Y. S. 1993, Wo guo guwu niang jiu qiyuan xin lun (A new discussion on the origins of wine made from grain in our country). Kaogu (Archaeology) 6: 534-542.
  27. Maspero Henri 1971, Le Taoïsme et les religions chinoises.
  28. McGovern Patrick & al. 2004, Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China, PNAS 101-51 www.pnas.org_cgi_doi_10.1073_pnas.0407921102
  29. McGovern Patrick, Underhill Anne, Hui Fang, Fengshi Luan, Hall Gretchen, Haiguang Yu, Chen-Shan Wang, Fengshu Cal, Zhijun Zhao, Feinman Gary 2005, Chemical Identification and Cultural Implications of a Mixed Fermented Beverage from Late Prehistoric China, Asian Perspectives Vol. 44(2), University of Hawai'i Press.
    Chemical_Identification_of_a_Mixed_Fermented_Beverage_from_Late_Prehistoric_China_2005
  30. Mollier Christine 1999, Les cuisines de Laozi et du Buddha. In: Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie 11, 45:90.
  31. Nelson, Sarah Milledge 2003, Feasting the Ancestors in Early China. In The Archaeology and Politics of Food and Feasting in Early States and Empires, ed. Tamara L. Bray, New-York, 65:89.
  32. Nishizawa Haruhiko 2003, The Chinese way of drinking alcoholic beverages. In Japanese civilization in the Modern World XVII Alcoholic Beverages, Senri Ethnological Studies 64, Tadao Umesao, Shuji Yoshida, Paul Schalow (eds), 101:119.
  33. Poo Mu Chou 1999, Use and abuse of wine in the ancient China, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 42 123:148.
  34. Puett Michael 2004, The Offering of Food and the Creation of Order: The Practice of Sacrifice in Early China. In "Of Tripod and Palate, Food, Politics, and Religion in Traditional China" Sterckx Roel (ed.), 75:96.
  35. Robinet Isabelle 1991, Histoire du taoïsme, des origines au XIVe siècle.
    https://fr.scribd.com/document/40966828/6543510-Isabelle-Robinet-Histoire-Du-Taoisme
  36. Sabban Françoise 1997, La diète parfaite d'un lettré retiré sous les Song du Sud, Etudes chinoises XVI(1), 7:57.
  37. Sabban Françoise 1998, Insights into the Problem of Preservation by Fermentation in the 6th century China. In Food Conservation. Ethnological Studies, ed. Riddervold A., Ropeid A., 45-55. Department of Ethnology of the University of Oslo.
    • A study based upon the Qimin Yaoshu, a treaty of agriculture and preparation of food and drinks written between 533 and 544 by Jia Sixie in the north of China.
  38. Schaffer, Edward H. 1977, T'ang. In Food in Chinese Culture. Anthropological and Historical Perspectives, ed. Chang K. C., Yale University Press, 85:140.
  39. Serruys Paul L.-M. 1974, Studies in the Language of the Shang Oracle Inscriptions, T'oung Pao, Second Series  60(1/3), 12:120.
  40. Slocum John W., Conder Wendy, Corradini Elthon & al. 2006, Fermentation in the China Beer Industry, Organizational Dynamics 35 (1), 32:48.
    • The western industrial brewery market (raw malt + grain) in China.
  41. Stein R.A. 1963, Remarques sur les mouvements du taoïsme politico-religieux au IIe siècle ap. J.-C, T'oung Pao, 50 1-78.
  42. Stein R.A. 1971, Les fêtes de cuisine du taoïsme religieux, Annuaire du Collège de France, 431-440.
  43. Stein R.A. 1972, Spéculations mystiques et thèmes relatifs aux Cuisines du taoïsme, Annuaire du Collège de France, 489-499.
  44. Trombert Éric 1999, Bière et bouddhisme : la consommation de boissons alcoolisées dans les monastères de Dunhuang aux VIIIe-Xe siècles, Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie 11, 129:181.
    persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/asie_0766-1177_1999_num_11_1_1152
  45. Tso-pin Tung, Yang Lien-sheng, Ten Examples of Early Tortoise-Shell Inscriptions, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 11(1/2), 119:129.
  46. Wang-Toutain Françoise 1999, Pas de boissons alcoolisées, pas de viande : une particularité du bouddhisme chinois vue à travers les manuscrits de Dunhuang, Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie 11, 91:128.
  47. Warner Ding Xiang, Ji Wang, Mr. Five Dippers of Drunkenville: The Representation of Enlightenment in Wang Ji's Drinking Poems, Journal of the American Oriental Society 118(3), 347:355.
  48. Weber Charles D. 1966, Chinese Pictorial Bronze Vessels of the Late Chou Period. Part II, Artibus Asiae 28(4), 271:311.
  49. Xing R., Tang Y. 1984, Archaeological evidence for ancient wine making, in Recent Discoveries in Chinese Archaeology: 56–58, ed. F. Stockwell and T. Bowen, trans. B. Zuo. Beijing: Foreign Languages.
  50. Xu Gan Rong, Bao Tong Fa, Grandiose Survey of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks and Beverages.
    •  Grandiose Survey of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks and Beverages (last access on January 2021).
    • History of rice and millet beers in China since the Neolithic. Beware, the Chinese scholars translate the generic term jiu by "alcoholic drink" or "wine", conforming to Western habits. But the correct translation is "rice beer" or "millet beer". Some illustrations are missing, but the general content is very copious.
  51. Yü Ying-shih 1977, Han. In Food in Chinese Culture. Anthropological and Historical Perspectives, ed. Chang K. C., Yale University Press, 53:84.
  52. Yuan H. 1989, Niangjiu zai woguo de qiyuan he fazhan (The origin and development of wine fermentation in China), in Zhongguo Jiu Wenhua (Chinese wine culture), ed. Y. Li. Beijing: China Food. 35:62.
  53. Zhang D. S. 1994, Yin Shang jiu wenhua chulun (Preliminary discussion about the Shang wine culture). Zhongyuan Wenwu (Cultural Relics of the Central Plain) 3, 18:24.
  54. Zhang Z. 1960, Lun wo guo niangjiu qiyuan de shidai wenti (Regarding the date of origin of wine fermentation in China). Qinghua Daxue Xuebao (Bulletin of Qinghua University) 7(2), 31–33.
  55. Zhu Hong 1964, Bei Shan Jiu Jing (Wine canon of North Hill). Taipei: Xing Zhong Shu Ju.
  
 

Korea

 
  1. Guillemoz Alexandre 1991, Manuscrits et articles oubliés d'Akiba Takashi, Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie 6, 115:149.
    • Akiba Takashi was a Japanese specialist in Korean shamanism. Guillemoz publishes part of his manuscripts which were found by chance and came into his possession.
  2. Guillemoz Alexandre 1992, En chamanisme coréen. Kut pour le mort ? pour les vivants ?, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 79(2), 317:358.
    • Shamanic rites make multiple uses of rice beer (makkôlli) to accompany the dead.
  3. Ha-rim Choe 1996, Aesthetics of Antique Wine Bottles and Cups, Koreana 10, 38:43.
  4. Kim C. J. 1968, Microbiological and enzymological studies on Takju brewing, Journal of Korean Agriculture and Chemistry Society 60, 66:69.
  5. Lee Cherl-Ho, Kim G. M. 1993, Korean rice-wine, the types and processing methods in old Korean literature, Bioindustry 6(4), 8:25.
  6. Lee Cherl-Ho 1999, The Primitive Pottery Age of Northeast Asia and its importance in Korean food history, Korean Culture Research 32, 325:457.
  7. Lee Cherl-Ho 2001, Fermentation Technology in Korea, Korea University Press.
    • A reference. The Korean history of technology is being studied by a Korean biotechnology specialist. The very ancient Korean traditions are not an appendage to Chinese or Japanese history. Three chapters deal more specifically with Korean brewing traditions. Chapter 1. Evolution of Korean food culture (1-22). Chapter 2. The age of primitive pottery (8000-3000 BC.) - the era of fermentation experience (23-43). Chapter 3. History of cereal fermentation technology (44-69). Annex: Collection of summaries of research articles in Korea I. Alcoholic fermentation.
  8. Lee Cherl-Ho 2001b, The importance of Primitive Pottery Age (8,000-3,000 B.C.) of northeast Asia in the history of food fermentation, Presented to the 11th World Congress of Food Science and Technology, April 22-27, 2001, Seoul, Korea.
  9. Lee Cherl-Ho, Lee S. S. 2002, Cereal fermentation by fungi, In Applied Mycology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, Agriculture and Food Production ed., 151:170.
  10. Lee Hyo-Gee 1996, Histoire des boissons alcoolisées traditionnelles de la Corée, Coreana 10(4), 4:9.
  11. McCann David R. 1996, A Few Poems on Makkolli, Koreana 10, 26:29.
  12. Seung-beom Choi 1996, Korean Drinking Customs, Koreana 10, 20:25.
  13. Tae-Ho Lee 2004, Offering a Glimpse into the Ancient World of Goguryeo, Koreana 18, 14:19.
    • Frescoes with scenes of drinking manners in tombs dated from the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo (4th-6th centuries). Beer and other fermented drink service for the deceased.

 

Japan.

 
  1. Antoni Klaus 1988, Miwa: der heilige Trank. Zur Geschichte und Religiösen Bedeutung des alkoholischen Getränkes in Japan, Steiner, Stuttgart.
    • Mount Miwa near Nara shelters during the Middle Ages few sanctuaries which brew sake.
  2. Asai Shogo 2003, The introduction of European liquor production to Japan. In Japanese civilization in the Modern World XVII Alcoholic Beverages, Senri Ethnological Studies 64, Tadao Umesao, Shuji Yoshida, Paul Schalow (eds), 49:61.
  3. Atkinson Robert William 1881, The Chemistry of Sake Brewing, Memoirs of the Science Department n° 6, Tôkyô Daigaku (University of Tokyo), Tôkyô.
    • www.brewery.org/brewery/library/chmsk_RA.html
    • The second treatise on sake brewing in a Western language (see Hoffman J.J. 1870 for the first one). Robert William Atkinson (1850-1929) studied chemistry in London (University College London - UCL) then the Royal School of Mines (RSM). Promoted professor of chemistry at the University of Tokyo, his own field research lead Atkinson in the japanese breweries where he analyzes the brewing of sake, the conversion and fermentation of rice. He received significant help from his Japanese pupils Toyokichi Takamatsu (1852-1937) and Iwata Nakazawa (1858-1943) as informants of Japanese culture and technology, chemists and researchers associated with his own studies . The turn of 19th and 20th centuries was a time of intensive scientific collaboration between easterner and westerner academic institutions.
  4. Baumert Nicolas 2011, Le Saké, une exception japonaise, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Presses Universitaires François-Rebelais.
    • One of the best history on sake in French. Sake since its origin with many economic and social considerations on the role of this beer which has become a national symbol. Extract from the author's doctoral thesis in 2009.
  5. Ben-Ari Eyal 2003, SAKÉ and "Space Time": culture, organization and drinking in Japanese Firms. In Japanese civilization in the Modern World XVII Alcoholic Beverages, Senri Ethnological Studies 64, Tadao Umesao, Shuji Yoshida, Paul Schalow (eds), 89:99.
  6. Berthier Laurence 2002, Fêtes et rites des quatre saisons au Japon, Publications Orientalistes de France, Paris.
    • The peasant festivals and propitiatory agrarian rites granted to rice beer play a central role in the ceremonies.
  7. Cobbi Jane 1991, Dieux buveurs et ancêtres gourmands, L'Homme 31 n°118, 111:123.
    • a href="http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/hom_0439-4216_1991_num_31_118_369382" target="_blank">http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/hom_0439-4216_1991_num_31_118_369382
    • In Japan, the nature of the offerings that are part of the cults is different, depending on whether they are intended for deities or ancestors. On the offering to the kami of sake and salty products, to the hotoke of tea and sweet cakes, which distinguishes the two great currents which traditionally dominate the religious world, Shinto and Buddhism.
  8. CraigTim 1996,The Japanese Beer Wars: Initiating and Responding to Hypercompetition in New Product Development, Organization Science 7(3) Special Issue Part 1 of 2: Hypercompetition, 302:321.
  9. Hanai Shiro 2003, Structural Characteristics and Modernization of alcoholic Beverage Production in Japan and China. In Japanese civilization in the Modern World XVII Alcoholic Beverages, Senri Ethnological Studies 64, Tadao Umesao, Shuji Yoshida, Paul Schalow (eds), 17:33.
  10. Hérail Francine 2006, La cour et l'administration du Japon à l'époque des Heian, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Hautes Etudes Orientales 40, Droz.
    • In the 11th century, sake, its brewing, the sake drinking manners, its distribution through the palace and the seasons, everything is codified. The court life under the Heian (794-1185) is ruled in great detail.
  11. Hoffman J. J. 1870, De Rijstbier - of Sake brouwerij in Japan, naar Japansche bronnen, In: Bijdragen tot de Tall-, Land-, en Volkenkunde van Neerderlansch Indie 17(1), 179:192.
  12. Hoffman J. J. 1870-72, Ricebeer, or sake brewing in Japan, compiled from Japanese sources, Phoenix 1(2), 201:202,  Phoenix 2, 2:4
  13. Kabanoff A. 1993, Unpublished materials by Nikolai Nevsky on the ethnology of the Ryûkyû Islands, Nachrichten der Gesellschaft für Natur und Völkerkunde ostasiens, Hamburg, 153, 25:43.
    • Notes by N. Nevsky on the brewing of rice beer in the Ryukyu archipelago by insalivation of cooked rice. Mention of the same technical tradition by the indigenous peoples of Taiwan.
  14. Kamatani C. 1995, Sake brewing and its records in Edo Japan, Historia Scientarum 5(2), 117:125.
    • The evolution of sake brewing since the 15th century according to the Goshu no Nikki (Journal on Sake), then the Edo period (1600-1868) until the development of a standardized method of brewing little by little adopted throughout Japan between 1800 and 1850.
  15. Kanzaki Nobotake 2003, The alcoholic beverages of bars and restaurants in the 17th-19th century Tokyo. In Japanese civilization in the Modern World XVII Alcoholic Beverages, Senri Ethnological Studies 64, Tadao Umesao, Shuji Yoshida, Paul Schalow (eds), 63:75.
  16. King Dan 2004, Japanese Military Sake Cups, 1894-1945, Schiffer Publishing Ldt.
    • Astonishing work on the sake coupes preserved by the Japanese military. In Japan, rice beer is integrated into military life, its codes and its rituals. Very rare illustrations and a rich catalog of decorated cups.
  17. Maucuer Michel 2011, Quand la distincton devient art: Banquets et festins au Japon du XVIè au XIXè siècleJournal asiatique Paris, 299(2), 705:713.
    • In the 16th century, painted scrolls took banquet scenes as their exclusive themes. Sake flows afloat in one type of banquet, in another type of banquet one drinks only tea, in a 3rd type, one drinks and eats. This new iconography illustrates a profound change in customs.
  18. Reider Noriko T. 2005,Shuten Doji: "Drunken Demon", Asian Folklore Studies 64(2), 207:231.
  19. Schalow Paul 2003, Dangerous Pleasure: the discourse of drink in early modern Japan. In Japanese civilization in the Modern World XVII Alcoholic Beverages, Senri Ethnological Studies 64, Tadao Umesao, Shuji Yoshida, Paul Schalow (eds), 77:87.
  20. Watanabe Takeshi 2009, Wine, Rice, or Both? Overwriting Sectarian Strife in the Tendai Shuhanron Debate,Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 36(2), 259:278.
  21. Yoshida Hajime 2003, Transfer of SAKÉ Technology to Korea, Taiwan and China. In Japanese civilization in the Modern World XVII Alcoholic Beverages, Senri Ethnological Studies 64, Tadao Umesao, Shuji Yoshida, Paul Schalow (eds), 35:47.
  22. Yoshida Toshiomi 2003, Technology Development of Sake Fermentation in Japan. In The First International Symposium and Workshop on “Insight into the World of Indigenous Fermented Foods for Technology Development and Food Safety” held in Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, August 2003, I-4.
    • A scientific study of the brewing of sake by traditional methods and "improved" modern methods.
  

 

Taïwan.

 
  1. Josiane Cauquelin 1992, La ritualité puyuma (Taiwan), Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 79(2), 67:101.
    persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/befeo_0336-1519_1992_num_79_2_1873
    • The indigenous peoples of Taiwan have been brewing beer for centuries. Their traditional beers are part of their daily life and are involved in their rites.
  2. Kabanoff A. 1993, Unpublished materials by Nikolai Nevsky on the ethnology of the Ryûkyû Islands, Nachrichten der Gesellschaft für Natur und Völkerkunde ostasiens, Hamburg, 153, 25:43.
    • Notes by N. Nevsky on the brewing of rice beer in the Ryukyu archipelago by insalivation of cooked rice. Mention of the same technical tradition by the indigenous peoples of Taiwan.
22/05/2020  Christian Berger